My name is Richard Ward I am a local to this area and a member of the Battlefields Trust.
I started to become interested in the battle of Winwick Pass many years ago and was struck by how this battle had absolutely fundamental impacts on our nation.
In the last few years I set about researching the battle based on diaries, letters and memoirs written at the time. It has taken me several years to undertake this research in working closely with colleagues in the Battlefields Trust who provided valuable input and validity checks. Especially discovering the land now known as the ‘former Parkside Colliery’ sits on part of the site where the battle of Winwick Pass on 19 August 1648 occurred.
The engagement at Winwick Pass on 19 August 1648 ended the Second Civil War. The consequences of this changed fundamentally the history of England and Scotland, its system of government and its monarchy.
Yet locally this has seemingly been “air brushed” out of local heritage by municipal authorities.
For me this is a travesty, as this should be a huge asset to our area, our culture and local heritage. Let us be aware, more than 1000 souls lost their lives during the battle, but up till now there is no recognition where these people are laid to rest or even a monument of respect.
In my opinion there should be an investigation to find out where all those people were buried. It depends on the results of that investigation what must be the next step.
As a community surely we should not be comfortable with the above situation and I would like to see some form of recognition and a much greater local awareness especially among the young of this and future generations.
The work is allocated into two aspects first, the fall of monarch and second, the rise of parliament. I hope you appreciate the article.
The Fall of Monarchy and the Rise of Parliament
(1625 – 1649)
The background and events leading to the battle on the 19th August 1648
The object of this document is to give a view of the events that caused the battle of Winwick Pass through the eyes of the persons who were involved at the time.
I have tried to select records suitable for general use, which has meant examining many books and careful selection, to show the fall of monarchy and the rise of parliament in the 17th century.
The reason for this research is to bring to a wider audience the importance of Winwick Pass. One of the aspects of the Second Civil War and in particular Winwick Pass is to remember those Scottish prisoners who were transported overseas to a lifetime of slavery and especially those persons from England and Scotland, who gave their lives for each of the respective Kingdoms causes.
To understand what caused the decisive battle of Winwick Pass in the Second Civil War and the resulting effects we must go back to the actions of the forebears of King Charles I, who through continually changing their religion at the end caused the downfall of King Charles I.
Who are the forebears of King Charles I?
House of Tudor
The House of Tudor was born when Henry Tudor came to the English throne in 1485, where during the thirty years before this event, a civil war had been fought between the House of Lancaster, the party of the Red Rose, and the House of York, the party of the White Rose. The course of these Wars of the Roses, finally ended when in 1485, when the Earl of Richmond, Henry Tudor, representing the House of Lancaster, had defeated and killed King Richard III (1483-1485) of the House of York.
Whence, Henry Tudor became King Henry VII of England (1485-1509), and the period of the House of Tudor began. Henry had four children, which included Arthur (died in 1502), Margaret, Mary and Henry,
When King Henry VII died in 1509, his son Henry became King Henry VIII of England (1509-1547), Henry VIII married Catharine of Aragon, who gave Henry only a daughter, named Mary. Henry, desperate for a male heir to be his successor, he wanted to divorce, Queen Catharine. But in order to accomplish this, Henry had to rejected the Catholic faith thus causing a rift with the Pope. In doing so, Henry became “Supreme Head”, “Defender of the Faith” of the Church of England (Protestant), whence the Reformation of England took place and many of the Catholic Churches were sacked to a ruinous state.
Henry VIII now divorced, he married Anne Boleyn who like Catharine gave Henry only a daughter, Elizabeth. When Henry discovered that Anne was unfaithful, she was beheaded. Henry VIII had a son and heir, Edward through his marriage with Jane Seymour.
When Henry VIII died, Edward became King Edward VI (1547-1553), who followed the Protestant faith during his reign, the Reformation doctrines and a Prayer-Book in English was adopted. When Edward VI died, Mary became Queen Mary I (1553-1558), but being the daughter of Queen Catharine, she was brought up under the Catholic faith, thus during her reign, the Catholic doctrines and connection with the Pope was restored. When Mary I died, Elizabeth became Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), who being brought up in the Protestant faith, restored England to that faith. Elizabeth became “Supreme Governor” of the Church of England. This the Clergy took up, save a few and increasingly it became impossible to be a good Roman Catholic and a good citizen of England. To the Point the Pope excommunicated Elizabeth and declared her deposed.
Jesuits came over to strengthen the Catholic faith. As a result of all very severe laws were passed against Catholics.
It was made high treason to say “ Mass” to priests and Jesuits if they were caught, were put to death. To Catholics who were brought up for trial were put three questions, the last of which was called the ‘bloody’ or fatal question, as it brought so many to the scaffold or the gallows:
“Do you acknowledge Elizabeth as your lawful Queen?”
“Do you believe the Pope can excommunicate and depose the Queen?”
“In the event of a Catholic invasion, which side would you take, the Queen’s or the Pope’s?”
In the meantime the Puritans1., as the extreme Protestants are called, increased, they objected to the rule by bishops. Strange though it may sound to-day, people were expected to be of the same religion as their King or Queen – “he or she who rules settles the religion.” In the middle ages the Church had been supreme. After the renaissance and the Reformation men thought more about the State and its Power. Elizabeth died in 1603 which ended the House of Tudor.
House of Stuart
When Elizabeth died, having no children, the heir to the throne reverted back to the line of King Henry VII, and to his daughter Margaret, who had married James Stuart the IV of Scotland, and the Scottish House of Stuart line: James IV died in 1513, whose son, James became King James V of Scotland. When James V died in 1542, his daughter Mary became “Mary Queen of Scots”. She was executed in 1587; her son, James, then became King James VI of Scotland.
It is to James VI of Scotland, who now became King James I of England in 1603 by the fate of hereditary birth right, as well. The best remembered facts of the reign of James I are the Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland; the first successful colonies of the British Empire; the Gunpowder Plot; the Authorised Version of the Bible 1611. One of the most important results of James I’s reign was the union of England and Scotland under one King. For 100 years (till 1707), the two countries were indeed to have separate Parliaments and separate governments. But from the accession of James I to the throne of England, they have the same King and their fortunes have been linked together. This meant that Scotland was no longer, as in time past, leagued with England’s foes. Above all, it enabled the peoples of the two countries, each supplying valuable qualities, to join together to develop British industries and trade and to build the British Empire. But perhaps the event best remembered by boys and girls is the Gunpowder Plot or Bonfire night, which was the work of a few ardent Roman Catholics to blow up the King and members of Parliament at the opening of Parliament, 5 November 1605. The plotters thought this was the only means to get rid of the severe laws against the Catholics, and, above all, could secure a Catholic King in England. One of the failed plotters was called Guy Fawkes.
King James I had three children: Henry (died 1612), Charles and Elizabeth. Elizabeth married Frederick (elected King of Bohemia) who had two children Rupert and Sophia. Prince Rupert played a major role in the first Civil War in England (1642-1646), and Sophia married the elector of Hanover, whose son, George became George I of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland (1714-1727). When James 1 died in 1625, Charles became King Charles I, the first King to be crowned as head of both Kingdoms of England and Scotland. King Charles I had two children, Charles and James, who both later became respectively Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland; Charles II (1660-1685) and James II (1685-1688).
The Fall of Monarchy and the Rise of Parliament (1625 – 1649)
In order to explain the fall of monarchy and the consequent rise of Parliament, the sequential time periods that occurred during the reign of King Charles I will be shown.
- The succession of King Charles I: The beginning: 1625 -1629
- Rule without Parliament: 1629 – 1640
- The Short Parliament: 13 April 1640 – 5 May 1640
- Rule without Parliament: 5 May 1640 – 3 November 1640
- The Long Parliament: 3 November 1640 – February 1649
- First Civil War: 1642 – 1646
- Parliament negotiates with King Charles: July 1646 – July 1648
- The Second Civil War: the invasion: 8 July 1648 – 19 August 1648
8.1. Parliament House of Commons
8.2. The Battle: July 1648 – August 1648
8.3. Parliamentarian Forces
8.4. Royalist Forces
8.5. Scottish Invasion of England
8.6. Battle of Appleby
8.7. At Kirkby-Thure
8.8. Parliamentary and Royalist Separate Manoeuvres
8.8.1. The Parliamentary Forces
126.96.36.199. Cromwell’s Forces
188.8.131.52. Lambert’s Forces
184.108.40.206. The Combined Cromwell Parliamentary Forces
220.127.116.11. Ashton’s Forces
18.104.22.168. Parliamentary Conclusion
8.8.2. The Royalist Forces (Engagers)
22.214.171.124. Scottish Royalist Forces
126.96.36.199. English Royalist Forces
188.8.131.52. Irish Royalist Forces
184.108.40.206. Royalist Conclusion
8.9. Battle of Preston: 17August 1648
8.10. Skirmishes at Wigan
8.10.1. Wigan Skirmish Addition
8.11. The decisive battle of Winwick Pass 19 August 1648
8.11.1. Scottish decide to make a stand at Winwick Pass
8.11.2. Baillie prepares the Scottish stand at Winwick Pass
8.11.3. Advance of Cromwell’s Parliamentary forces towards Winwick Pass
8.11.4. Cromwell attacks Baillie but the Royalist Stand is resolute
8.11.5. Reinforcement of Cromwell’s Parliamentary forces towards Winwick Pass
8.11.6. Winwick Pass Conclusion
8.11.7. Skirmish at Winwick Town
8.11.8. Skirmish at Winwick Town Conclusion
8.11.9. Capitulation at Warrington Bridge
8.11.10. The Battle of Winwick Pass: Capitulation at Warrington Summary
- The Battle of Winwick Pass: Consequences of the capitulation at Warrington
- Parliament re-negotiates with King Charles: August 1648 – 1 January 1649
- King Charles I committed for Trial for Treason against The Kingdom of England: January 1649
- The Rise of Parliament: 30 January 1649 – February 1648 and beyond
- Further Work: Investigation in to the Regiments and Troops present at Winwick Pass
- Overall Conclusion
- Battle of Winwick Pass 19 August 1648 Walk and Registration
1. The succession of King Charles I: The beginning: 1625 -1629
In the year 1625 Charles was crowned King of England and Scotland. Both countries had their own Parliament – Scottish Parliament and English Parliament (Parliament).
Charles was described by one of his faithful ministers as: “The most worthy of the title of an honest man, so great a love of justice that no temptation could dispose him to a wrongful action.”
As a result of his opinions and of his character, however, Charles was to arouse opposition. In the first place, he was against Parliament’s demands for greater control. He differed from many of his subjects on religious matters. Charles was not such a strong Protestant as many of them; and he was also a strong supporter of the rule of the bishops and of more ritual in church services than the Puritans liked.
Moreover, he married a French princess, Henrietta Maria, who was Roman Catholic, and people suspected that he was favouring her religion.
Finally, he did not keep faith with his subjects: he was not frank with them, and gave them the impression that they could not trust him – and this was to be his undoing. Indeed, people were justified in this opinion for Charles felt so strong about his rights that he did not feel himself bound by agreements which in any way lessened them.
There were many disputes between the King and the English Parliament during the years 1625 – 1629. These disputes led to the famous Petition of Rights that taxes raised without the consent of Parliament were illegal and that people could not be put in prison except on a regular charge.
The result was that Charles, having three Parliaments in four years, dissolved his third Parliament and decided to have not more if he could avoid it.
2. Rule without Parliament: 1629 – 1640
Charles ruled without a Parliament for eleven years. During this period he had several difficulties. One of them was that it was difficult for him in getting enough money to carry on the government of the country.
By various methods he managed to raise money. One of these methods led to the famous ship-money case. In those days for the seaports it was a custom to provide ships for the use of the King. With the ship-money that Charles collected, he built the finest ship in the world: it was known as: “The Sovereign of the Seas”.
Built by the Royal Navy by the aid of ship-money in 1637, a contemporary engraving
In 1637 Charles introduced The Prayer Book to be read in Scotland. The Scots had their own form of Protestant religion. Charles had – stupidly – tried to force the Scots a Prayer Book like the English Prayer Book. When this Prayer Book was introduced in Scotland, there were riots and violent scenes. The Scottish Parliament searched for aid and assistance from the French, prepared for war.
Also, at the same time there was a Dutch-Spanish battle at sea between Dover and Dunkirk, the second Spanish Armada. Spain lost that battle. The King’s fleet purely observed this battle, due to the King being neutral between both. The Scots made many false and scandalous accusations against the King about this affair.
At the end of 1638 the Scottish Parliament had gotten an army together for the pretence of defence of the Kingdom, its Religion and Laws, and declared war against King Charles.
The war came, as most wars did at that time, on a religious question. It was called: ”The Bishops War” (Bellum Episcopale).
3. The Short Parliament: 13 April 1640 – 5 May 1640
King Charles eleven year rule without a Parliament came to an end on 13 April 1640, because there was the so called “The Bishops War” on-going, Charles needed the support of the Parliament to bring Scotland to a state of submission. By asking the Parliament for money, the Parliament said: “Whether the King or the Subjects should be relieved first?”
The Parliament made the Scotch War the King’s personal and distinct business.
This altercation and the apparent unwillingness of the House of Commons to advance any money except under their previous desires (clearing the properties of the Subject, establishing of the true Religion and the privileges of Parliament) were confirmed and granted by the King, reduced his Majesty to a present necessity and dilemma, either or complying with the Scots, or to take money as he could raise it, by his own credit and Authority, to subdue him; for there was no hope in the Parliament delays.
This was the true reason to dissolve Parliament on 5 May 1640.
4. Rule without Parliament: 5 May 1640 – 3 November 1640
The Scottish Parliament sat with more violent proceeding than before and invaded England. King Charles English forces were eagerly and intensely bent on fighting with the Scots. In order to resolve this quarrel, twelve of the Nobility who were with the King, delivered him a Petition: after which was posted throughout the Kingdom, which unanimously agreed in this, that nothing could satisfy the people, nor relieve their grievances and pressures, but a Parliament.
This the King willingly assented to, and in part condescended to other of the Scots demands. The King summoned the Lords of England to sit in council at York, accordingly agreed for Parliament to be called from 3 November 1640.
Nevertheless, sixteen English Lords, whereof eight were Earls, the other Barons, should meet with so many of the Scottish Nobility to talk about a Treaty.
On 16 October 1640 the English Commanders through some fear, others out of compliance with the major part, agreed to the 12 Articles of Cessation to formulate a Treaty.
5. The Long Parliament: 3 November 1640 – February 1649
In order for the King to settle the Scottish demand for compensation, Charles had to recall Parliament on 3 November 1640.
Soon after the sitting of the Parliament, concluded in a Treaty, where in February 1641 the Scottish demands were paid with £124,000.
As soon as Parliament sat, immediately fell to questioning: several chief Ministers of State Bishops and Judges, pretending thereby both to satisfy the Nation and the Scottish.
Some – and they were the majority in the House of Commons – stood out for many new changes in Church and State. They wished to abolish bishops and to make other changes in religion. They wanted to increase the power of Parliament so much that the King would have had but the shadow of his former power, and he would become almost a figurehead.
Between them and the King’s party no agreement was really possible – and the sword had to decide.
This Parliament (now known as The Long Parliament) would effectively sit governing the Kingdom of England until February 1649 after the trial and execution of King Charles.
6. First Civil War: 1642 – 1646
The First Civil War was between 1642 and 1646. The precise details of this war will not be detailed here, although Lancashire and in particular Warrington and Winwick played a part.
The First Civil War was rife throughout England, with battles at Edgehill and Marston Moor, to mention just two.
The war came to an end because the King could only muster a small Royalist force to measure in hundreds; and thus surrendered ending the war on 10th July 1646.
After the end of the First Civil War, the English Parliament did not want to remove his Majesty from being the hereditary of the Kingdoms, but wanted his Majesty to accept that Parliament governs the Kingdoms.
7. Parliament negotiates with King Charles: July 1646 – July 1648
After the First Civil War had concluded on 10 July 1646, Parliament wanted to disband the Armies throughout the Kingdoms. But the Army refused, due to not having been paid for their previous services for Parliament. (This would be an important factor for Parliament to consider later upon hearing the Scottish Parliament had invaded England in July 1648).
King Charles gave himself up to the Scots, who gave him up to Parliament and placed under guard by the orders of English Parliament. King Charles, in late summer 1647 arranged to leave England for France but during his attempt he was discovered. The King was then kept under close arrest.
From November 1647 Parliament forward Treaties to the King on how the King and Parliament can work together. But this was rejected by the Scottish Parliament and by the King, for his Majesty, being the King of both Kingdoms, made it impossible for him to accept. The continual rejection by the King, Parliament resolved not to talk to the King, by the way of a resolution ordered on 11th February 1648, “..no further address made to the King; persons who breach this Order to suffer the penalty of High Treason.”
Riots started in Oxford and London in April 1648 and spread throughout England due to the condition of the King who was under House Arrest.
But little did Parliament know that the King, the Scottish nobility and the Scottish Parliament were secretly (by cipher) preparing to invade the Kingdom of England which would in effect take both Kingdoms in to another Civil War, 2 years later, nearly to the day.
In Edinburgh, a joined Scottish and English Parliamentary Commission sat from February to July 1648 to discuss the way forward, regarding the 3 Propositions and Personal Treaty of the King, the Kingdoms, Religion, and Peace between the two Kingdoms, which included the repayment of Scottish Loans. (Cipher reference: Hamilton’s Memoirs and Hamilton Papers)
In the middle of June, Sir William Fleeming was despatched again from his highness to Scotland with the following letter:
After receiving this letter, several debates occurred between the Scottish Nobles regarding when to invade. Hamilton resolved to assemble the Scottish forces at Annan, near the borders of England, on the 4th of July.
On the 8th July 1648 at 4 am Hamilton invaded England with the Scottish Parliament Declaration. Whilst simultaneously the Scottish Commission sent the letter on 8 July 1648 to the English Commissioners in Edinburgh the very same day with “The Declaration” for the Houses of Parliament to answer. Parliament returned no answer, in regard, “the Scottish Army had then invaded England.” The negotiations between the Scottish and English Commission at Edinburgh ceased and Parliament recalled their ministers back to London.
So the Scottish invaded England. By doing so, it was as if the Scottish knew the Treaty negotiations would be thrown away once the Scottish had defeated the English with a massive force, under the command of the Duke of Hamilton.
This sets the cause behind the Second Civil War and the reasons behind why the Battle of Winwick Pass occurred, and the reactions and events of how Oliver Cromwell at the surrender of the Scottish at Warrington directly after Winwick Pass defeated and routed the Scottish Foot.
8. The Second Civil War: the invasion: 8 July 1648 – 19 August 1648
8.1. Parliament House of Commons
Upon the written declaration from the Scottish Parliament and forces to invade England on the 8 July 1648, Parliament debated, resolved and voted on several issues so that the Parliamentary forces were prepared on how to deal with the invaders.
Here are a few key Parliament orders concerning the Parliamentary Forces primer orders of conduct upon the treatment of those who have invaded the Kingdom of England.
12 July 1648, Parliament “….Letters this day to the House farther from the North, give to understand, that after that notable Defeat given to Langdale’s Forces by ‘ Colonel Robert Lilburne, the Forces under his Command have eversince quartered in and near Hexam, being three Regiments, viz, Northumherland’s, Bishoprick’s, and his own…….That 9000 Horse and Foot of the Scots are joined with Langdde’s Forces, and advanced within eight miles of Carlisle, intending to fall upon Major General Lambert’s Forces there….” (Rushworth page 1188)
14 July 1648, Parliament upon receiving Lambert’s letter 10 July from Penrith, containing Hamilton’s invasion with the Scottish Parliament declaration and Lambert’s response. The House voted on supplying the forces in the North with money and to be paid by All the King’s, Queen’s and Prince’s Revenues in the Northern Part of the Kingdom shall be collected for the Maintenance and Pay of all the Northern Forces. This was a crucial point to clarify first, in order to support the Parliamentary Forces moral in the ensuing unknown events. Especially, as the severe weather throughout England was not conducive toward moral. (Rushworth page 1189)
20 July 1648, Parliament declared, ‘That all Persons whatsoever which ‘ are of this Kingdom, and have invited the Army of the Scots, now under the Command of Duke Hamilton, to come into the Kingdom of England, or have any ways assisted that Army in this Kingdom, are Traitors, and shall be proceeded against accordingly. The House considered of our Commissioners in Scotland, Whether it was secure for them to stay any longer there, seeing that Kingdom hath proclaimed War against England; and it was ordered, that the said Commissioners should be desired forthwith to make their repair into this Kingdom.’ (Rushworth page 1198).
21 July 1648, Parliament debated, voted and declared, any hostilities against this Kingdom taken prisoner shall be tried for their lives by ‘a council of war’. And that Lord-General Fairfax2. shall commission persons through the counties of England for the trial of such prisoners, by Marshall Law. (Rushworth page 1198).
4 August 1648, Parliament, according to former Order, took into Debate- the great Business of the Prince’s Declaration, and Letter to the Common Council of London, which the Common Council this day presented to the House of Peers, not to the Commons ; most part of the day was spent in Debate thereof, at last they came to a Resolution ; and Voted, ” That all Persons whatsoever, as well Subjects of this Nation, as others, that do and shall adhere unto, join with, or voluntarily aid or assist Prince Charles in this War by Sea or Land, against this Kingdom, are Traitors and Rebels; and ought to be proceeded against as Traitors and Rebels.”
The Debate as to the Prince himself, put off till another day, (Rushworth 1215). See later 30 January 1649 Proclamation against the late King’s Race, (Rushworth page 1431).
During this period, Parliament again places before the King: The 3 Propositions must be agreed before the Personal Treaty with the King can be further discussed.
8.2. The Battle: July 1648 – August 1648
Some of the important names:
(known as ‘Engagers)
Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell*
(also known as ‘Engagers’)
Duke of Hamilton*
Earl of Calander
General Adjutant Colonel Turner*
Sir Marmaduke Langdale*
The * indicates memoirs, diaries or letters written at the time.
8.3. Parliamentarian Forces
Various Parliamentarian forces patrolled the counties of England during June/July 1648, some forces include:
- Lieutenant-General Cromwell’s forces were in Wales (Rushworth); and
- In the North, patrolled south of the Scottish border:
- Major-General Lambert’s Forces during his patrol of Cumbria area (Catterick-Barnard Castle-Bowes-Appleby-Penrith-Carlisle-Cockermouth-Ireby-etc) consisting of troops to include: Hodgson; Birch; Lancashire Forces (4 Regiments of Foot and 2 Regiment of Horse); Major Cholmley with a Party of Horse; plus others. Lambert has spies amongst the enemy who kept him informed of their numbers (Hodgson).
- Colonel Lilburne Forces during his patrol of Northumbrian and Durham area include Newburn- Blackheddon-Hexham (29 Jun)-Morpeth-Whittingham-Newcastle-Durham-Bowes (Lilburne meets with Lambert)-Bolam. (Sanderson)
8.4. Royalist Forces
From February 1648 the Scottish Parliament, Kirk and Committee of Estates negotiated with the English Parliament concerning the 3 Propositions and Personal Treaty regarding the King, the Kingdoms, Religion, and Peace between the Kingdoms.
Scottish Parliament, Kirk and Committee of Estates approved the creation of an Army. The purchase of the ammunition was funded by the Queen and the Prince, with full agreement of the King. The Scottish force consisted of the following:
The Command was given to the Duke of Hamilton;
Earl of Calander, commander of the Armies;
Lieutenant-General Middleton, commander of the Regiments of Horse;
Lieutenant-General Baillie, commander of the Regiments of Foot; and
Colonel Turner Generals Adjutant.
16th August, the Committee of Estates of Scotland, send correspondence to Prince Charles, the son of King Charles, inviting him to come and remain in Scotlandor join with the Scottish Army now in England. Prince Charles in order to join the Scots, attempts to land his navy but was repelled by the English.
July to August 1648: Correspondence in cipher, between Scottish Parliament, Committee of Estates, The King, The Queen, Prince of Wales, Earls of Lauderdale and Lanerick and Hamilton continued in expectation. Then the correspondence stopped on the 21 August 1648, (Hamilton memoirs and Hamilton Papers).
In England there was support for King and his plight against the English Parliament.
Sir Marmaduke Langdale commanded the English Royalist force, whose army performed miracles during the Scottish invasion being the main force during the skirmishes and battles at Hexham, Appleby, and Clitheroe to Preston. Having ‘limited’ support from the Scottish forces during the invasion to its conclusion. Langdale played no part in the battle of Winwick Pass or the capitulation at Warrington, having virtually all of his forces being either taken as prisoners or killed in action at Preston.
Although Langdale’s English Royalists who had suffered a defeat by the hands of Lilburne’s Parliamentary Forces at Hexham, near Newcastle upon Tyne, (Rushworth Page 1188). Undaunted by this defeat at Hexham, Langdale marched to Carlisle with his English Royalist force of 3000 Foot and 600 Horse, to join Hamilton’s Scottish Forces in the Penrith area.
The Irish force was was commanded by Major-General George Monro, who due to circumstance not known refused to take orders from either Calander or Baillie. Thus Monro took no part in the Scottish invasion.
July/August 1648, apart from Monro heading back to Scotland in order to regroup with a fresh Scottish Force, but was rejected by the Scottish Kirk and finally pursued by Cromwell, due to the Parliament Resolution, 4 August 1648: “That all Persons whatsoever, as well Subjects of this Nation, as others, that do and shall adhere unto, join with, or voluntarily aid or assist Prince Charles in this War by Sea or Land, against this Kingdom (England), are Traitors and Rebels; and ought to be proceeded against as Traitors and Rebels.” (Rushworth)
8.5. Scottish Invasion of England
On 4 July 1648, the decision was made to assemble the Scottish forces at Annan, under the Command of Hamilton along with Calander, Middleton, Baillie and Turner.
At 4 am on Saturday 8 July 1648, Hamilton ordered the Scottish Force of Horse and Foot to advance in to England. He was forced to march with half regiments, ill armed and worse disciplined, in the rainiest summer ever Europe saw. To pass over rivers at that time could not be ridden by reasons of the rains which fell continually; for all this while there were such deluges of rains not only over England, but all over Europe as well. Every brook was a river, which made the march very heavy to both Horse and Foot; nor was it possible for the Foot to keep one musket fixed, most part of the time the Scottish were just a body in England and probably the worst time to invade. (Memoires of Hamilton and Turner).
The Scottish forces in total 10,500 marched towards Carlisle and on to Penrith.
On 10 July 1648, Hamilton sent to Lambert, the written Declaration terms in the name of the Scottish Parliament. Lambert’s replied instantly to Hamilton, referring the Scottish demands are for the Houses of Parliament’s decision to answer. Lambert dispatched these letters to Parliament in London, then marched towards Appleby . (Rushworth page 1193-5).
The Scottish Royalists brought with them, (Heath’s Chronicles, page 177):
“…a Declaration containing these five points.
- That the King be forthwith brought to London to Treat in Person with the two Houses of Parliament.
- That all those who had a hand in or contrived the carrying of the King away from Holdenby, be condignly punished.
- That the Army be disbanded.
- That Presbytery be settled.
- That the Members of Parliament who were forcibly secluded from the Houses, may be reseated…”
Engagers Invasion of England map www.bcw-project.org
With an impression of the troop movements Second Civil War 8 July to 19 August 1648
Added by R. Ward 2014
8.6. Battle of Appleby
The Scottish Forces: Next morning betimes, a great rain falling, the Scots advanced to a bridge a mile beyond Penrith, with design to engage the Lambert’s Forces, return to Penrith.
Next day, the Scots discovered Lambert’s main-guard within a mile of Appleby castle, consisting of about three hundred horse. Middleton ordered the captain of the general’s troop to charge, who beat back Lambert’s horse into the town of Appleby.
That evening the whole cavalry made a stand for several hours, expecting the advance of Langdale’s English Royalists.
Next morning Lambert marched away with both horse and foot, leaving a garrison in Appleby-castle; and in doing so cut Appleby bridge, in order to make it impossible for the Scottish to follow, for the rains had fallen in such abundance that the waters were not to be forded: whereupon the Scottish went back to Kirby-thure. Hamilton’s Memoirs page 451 shows:
“….That evening our whole cavalry made a stand for several hours, expecting the advance of Langdale, who being marched up, did presently with his foot engage with the enemy into the town till it was dark. Our infantry quartered that night on the moor near Appleby ; but before the next morning the enemy marched away both horse and foot, leaving only a garrison in Appleby-castle; and did cut the bridge, so that it was impossible to follow, for the rains had fallen in such abundance that the waters were not to be forded : whereupon we went to Kirby-thure…”
Meanwhile Langdale besieged Appleby, Turner was ordered to lay near him with two brigades of foot till the castle capitulated, which it did in a very few days.
Lambert’s main force retreated towards Stainmore near Brough on the road towards Barnard Castle.
Hodgson page 114, Parliamentarian, writes:
“The Scots draw down with Horse and Foot towards Appleby bridge, and at their first appearance the water was formidable, but in a short time it was risen so high as we had no fords to maintain but only the bridge, where we had our foot placed on a piece of advantageous ground. Being, below them, and they coming down full upon us, our Foot gave them weight of lead, and missed not their mark; and because they could not come to us, being many fallen, we marched to them, both horse and foot, beat them to their main body a mile off, and made a safe retreat…….. The next night we marched towards Stanemore, and left a garrison at Appleby……..The Scots lay down before it; and, after some sallies and skirmishes, they treated, and yielded upon some small terms, to march away with their arms; and so came after us to Barnard Castle. The Scots marched towards Kendal….”
Turner Page 59, Royalist, writes.
“….Our advance obligd Lambert to retire. Some skirmishes we had with him for a day or two, but to little purpose. At length he got to Steinmure, where he began to fortifie himselfe. The Duke is necessitated to stay ten or twelve days at Kirkby-thure, to reffave those regiments were marching from Scotland, which did not exceed the halfe of their numbers they sould have been, all newly levied, raw and undisciplined ; and that summer was so excessivly rainy and wet, that I may say it was not possible for us to keep one musket often fixed, all the time we were in a bodie in England. Add to this that we had no canon, nay not one field piece, very litle amunition, and not one officer to direct it….….While the Duke lays at Kirkby-thure, Sir Marmaduke besiegeth the castle of Appleby, in which Lambert had left a guarrison. I am sent with two brigades to lay near him, for fear Lambert fould face about upon him. Within a few days the castle yeelded….”
Hamilton, Hodgson’s and Turner’s accounts give possible scenarios for the Royalist defeat at Winwick Pass, due to the afore said prevailing weather conditions and the Royalist troop condition and discipline.
At Brough, the Scottish made their resolve to head to Lancashire instead of to Yorkshire. Lambert had effectively stopped the Scottish Royalist approach in to England via Yorkshire from this part of England. Lambert’s forces then marched towards Barnard Castle. The Scottish then headed back to Kirkby-Thure.
About 14 July, Hamilton marches to Kirkby-Thure, midway between Penrith and Appleby, where Hamilton decides to wait for 3-weeks.
“…expecting the rest of our forces, who came up to us, yet far short of the numbers appointed by the Scottish Parliament, of which there was wanting more than a third part ; so that in all the Scottish were about ten thousand foot and four thousand horse. This is the true account of the strength of their army. Turner, who being general-adjutant, did often muster the infantry, avers on his honour they were no more ; and both Middleton and Lockhart did also assert there were not above four thousand horse ; so far short was the number of what was appointed by the Scottish Parliament, and generally given out to be the strength of Scottish army. The Scottish also waited for the Irish forces which Monro had brought over. In the mean while Langdale besieged Appleby, and lest Lambert had faced about, Turner was ordered to lie near him with two brigades of foot till the castle capitulated, which it did in a very few days...” (Hamilton memoires, page 451 – 452).
On 29 July 1648, after the 3-week rest, Hamilton marched on to Kendal.
8.8. Parliamentary and Royalist Separate Manoeuvres
It is at this moment in the Royalists invasion, the two Forces go their separate ways, for reasons which will become clear; before the two respective Forces meet again on the battlefield near Preston on 17 August 1648. The Royalists head towards Lancashire by way of Kendal; and the Parliamentarians head for Yorkshire on the eastern side of the Pennines by way of Barnard Castle. In order to explain each will be detailed as 1. The Parliamentary Forces and 2. The Royalist Forces
8.8.1. The Parliamentary Forces
The Parliamentary Forces patrolled different areas of the Kingdom once the news “Scotland had invaded the Kingdom of England” was known. The New Model Army organised under Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell’s dispatched orders for Lambert’s Force and Lilburne’s Force to assemble at Wetherby near Knaresborough, where Cromwell’s Force at Pembroke, Wales would also march to Knaresborough. Ashton’s Force in the Lancashire area would meet up with Cromwell’s joint Force near Clitheroe. Then once grouped, the combined Forces proceeded as one, to confront the Royalist Force marching south through Lancashire. The New Model Army had the understanding ‘the order of command’ is sacrosanct, where Cromwell ordered the three commanders Lambert, Lilburne and Ashton not to engage the Scottish until he arrives. Lambert and Lilburne followed Cromwell’s orders and started the march south towards Wetherby, near Knaresborough. Ashton proceeded towards Clitheroe.
220.127.116.11. Cromwell’s Forces
In a letter received Tuesday 11 July by Parliament from Cromwell at Pembroke, Wales.
‘ Friday Morning last (7 July), the Lieutenant General intended his march with his Army towards the North (from Pembroke in Wales), to join with Major General Lambert, to fight the Scots. The certain number of Scots entered the Kingdom is 6500 Foot, 2600 Horse’. (Rushworth)
Cromwell marches North: Pembroke, Gloucester, Warwick, Northampton (where Cromwell collects 3000 pairs of shoes for the Foot in the North an order by Parliament), then on to Leeds towards Wetherby area.
Cromwell also inferred to Lambert not to engage the enemy until he (Cromwell) arrives, Lambert in his further letters to Parliament, concurs with Cromwell’s request, (Rushworth).
Cromwell’s Letter of the 17 August 1648 gives details on how the Parliamentary Forces were assembled on 16 August at and near the Wetherby area for the Parliamentary ‘joint’ forces march and approach to Preston. (Ormerod page 256 to 258)
18.104.22.168. Lambert’s Forces
After Appleby and Stanmore, Lambert marches to Barnard Castle circa 19 July, along with: Hodgson; Birch; Lancashire Forces (4 Regiments of Foot and 2 Regiment of Horse); Major Cholmley with a Party of Horse; plus others. Lambert has spies amongst the enemy who kept him informed of their numbers (Hodgson page 112).
26 July Lambert at Barnard Castle is joined by an advance of 30 troops of Horse from Cromwell’s Force, making Lamberts force is 9000 strong (Rushworth). The advance guard of Cromwell’s Horse to meet with Lambert presumably with further letters with updates from Cromwell.
Lilburne while patrolling Northumberland received orders and meets Lambert at Bowes on 18 July.
Lambert’s Force march south is recorded in Birch’s Diary, thus Gatterley Moore to Richmond 2 August; Ripon 3 August; Knaresborough 7August
Hodgson page 114 confirms Lambert’s march south from Barnard Castle to Ripon. Hodgson also confirms the state of the New Model Army as:
“….Oliver met us with Horse and Foot. We were then betwixt eight or nine thousand; a fine smart army, and fit for action. We marched up to Shipton….”
Lilburne continued to patrol the Northumbrian and Durham area, then orders arrived while marching to Morpeth on 13 July: ‘to march to the Army at Bowes’ (Sanderson). After the meeting with Lambert on 18 July; Lilburne marched between Bowes and Bolam several times.
Sanderson’s Diary then confirms Lilburn’s march south: Bolam to Pierce bridge 2 August; Richmond 3 August- Ripon 3 August; arrived Knaresborough 7 August.
22.214.171.124. The Combined Cromwell Parliamentary force
Now Cromwell, Lambert, Lilburne and the others were assembled in the Wetherby area. On 14th August 1648 they marched on to Skipton and then on to Clitheroe. Various accounts suggests Cromwell forces were between 8000 to 10000 Horse and Foot.
Sanderson’s and Birch’s Diaries show how the Parliamentary forces were so organised to assemble in to a joint force or Army.
Lilburne forces according to Sanderson: Knaresborough to Sawley 12 August ; Pately Bridge 13 August- Skipton 14/15 August; on to Clitheroe 16 August.
Lambert forces according to Birch: Leave Knaresborough to Oatly to Skipton 14 August; Downham 15 August; on to Stanihurst Hall near Preston 16 August.
126.96.36.199. Ashton’s Forces
Then on 16th August south of Clitheroe at Whalley Colonel General Ashton’s Parliamentary regiment joined Cromwell’s forces heading towards Preston.
Ormerod page 257, Cromwell’s Letter 17 August 1648
“….We understand Col. General Ashton’s are at Whalley; we have seven troops of Horse and dragoons that we believe lie at or near Clithero. This night I have sent order to them expressly to march to Whalley, to joyne to those companies, that so we may endeavour the ruine of this enemie….”
According to Hamilton’s Memoirs page 454:
“….Langdale’s intelligence; which was only that one Ashton had raised two or three thousand presbyterians together to stop our march…”
Oliver Cromwell on Horseback engraving by Cattermole 1832
188.8.131.52. Parliamentary Conclusion
A possible reason why Cromwell was so confident in assembling the Parliamentary Forces at Wetherby near Knaresborough and to march towards Preston, where Ashton joined Cromwell at Whalley near Clitheroe, could have been, as explained by:
- Hodgson, page 112:
“We had spies amongst their army daily, that brought us true intelligence of their numbers as near as could be computed, and their postures and demeanours.”
- As Lambert and Lilburne were already in the Northumbria and the Yorkshire area, Hamilton had to have been marching south through Lancashire towards Preston.
8.8.2. The Royalist Forces (Engagers)
There were three Royalist forces, which are the Scottish, the English and the Irish. These three forces will be explained separately.
184.108.40.206. Scottish Royalists
After the Scottish Forces 3-week stay at Kirkby-Thure, Hamilton marched south towards Kendal, where during the march it was hotly debated whether the Scottish should march to Yorkshire or Lancashire. Hamilton, Baillie and Turner were for Yorkshire, but Lancashire was resolved on, which many blamed, that county being so disaffected, that little good intelligence was to be hoped for there; whereas Yorkshire was well affected: but Calander and Langdale pressed it earnestly, alleging it would ease our friends and weaken our enemies. (See later Turner:)
Kendal (Hamilton’s Memoires pages 452 – 453)
By this time the Irish forces commanded by Monro had come over, consisting between 3000 to 6000 all well trained and experienced soldiers arrived at Kendal.
Meanwhile the Scottish Forces arrived at the outskirts of Kendal, where Hamilton rode to Kendal to meet Monro, where it was decided that Monro and his Irish forces should followed up as Hamilton’s rear to Kirby-Lonsdale, near the border of Lancashire.
Kirkby Lonsdale (Hamilton’s Memoires pages 452 – 453)
When Monro’s force eventually arrived as the rear of the Scottish force at Kirkby Lonsdale, Monro had no mind to take orders either from Calander or Baylie, and this made Calander unwilling to bring Monro’s forces with them. Then Hamilton ordered Monro North to Appleby, (see later Irish: Monro).
Hamilton and the Scottish forces marched to Hornby, leaving Monro at Kirkby Lonsdale.
Here several incidents happened: (Hamilton page 452).
- At Hornby, the vangard, consisting of 3000 Foot and 600 Horse, was led by Langdale. He gathered information to prepare the army for a way to advance as well as enemy movements (see later Langdale).
- Calander and Middleton went on with the cavalry (between 3000-4000 Horse) to Wigan. (See later Callender and Middleton)
- Hamilton was left at Hornby with only some regiments of horse being a rear-guard to the infantry.
Summary of Kendal, Kirkby Lumsdale and Hornby
Finally, the action above caused the Scottish Army was thus divided:
Hamilton’s Foot at Hornby;
Langdale Scouting with the Vanguard in Lancashire;
Calander and Middleton’s Horse at Wigan;
Monro’s Irish Force march north from Kirby-Lumsdale.
The discussion at Hornby regarding whether to march to Lancashire or Yorkshire are described in Turner’s memoires page 62 and gives more of an insight to the perception of the weather, the lay of the land and more important Turner’s opinion of the Scottish force compared to the English forces from a person involved at the time:
“….At Hornby, a days march beyond Kendall, it was advised whether we should march be Lancashire, Chefhire and the western counties, or if we fould goe into Yorkshire, and so put ourselves in the straight road to London, with a resolution to fight all would oppose us. Calander was indifferent ; Middletone was for Yorkshire ; Baillie for Lancashire. When my opinion was askd, I was for Yorkshire, and for this reason only, that I understood Lancashire was a close country, full of ditches and hedges, which was a great advantage the English would have over our raw and undisciplined musketeers; the Parliaments armie consisting of experienced and well trained soldiers, and excellent firemen; on the other hand, Yorkshire being a more open countrey, and full of heaths, where we both might make use of our horse, and come sooner to push of pike. My Lord Duke was for Lancashire way, and it seemed he had hopes that some forces would join with him in his march that way. I have indeed heard him say, that he thought Manchester his own, if he came near it. Whatever the matter was, I never saw him tenacieous in any thing during the time of his command but in that. We choosed to go that way, which led us to our mine. Our march was much retarded by most rain and tempestuous weather, whereof I spoke before, the elements fighting against us ; and by staying for country horses to carry our little amunition….”
Callander and Middleton:
This part seems a very strange military manoeuvre for an invading force, (Hamilton’s memoires Page 454).
“….Calander and Middleton went on with the cavalry to Wiggan, some regiments of horse being only reserved for a rear-guard to the infantry, and we marched forward to Preston.
Upon the day after our army was thus divided, being the 18th of August, Calander got some hint of Cromwell’s joining Lambert. Upon this Calander thought it fit to bring the cavalry nearer the infantry, intending to go himself that night to the general ; whereupon some regiments of horse were drawn into the moor near Wiggan, and commanded to stay there till further orders, which late at night they got to return home to their quarters : then Calander went to the general, and Middleton stayed with the horse, which was the ruin of the army ; for all judged that Calander ought to have brought the horse with him, since he had reason to apprehend the approach of so powerful an enemy ; yet when he came to the general, he spoke nothing to him of the advertisement he had got….”
220.127.116.11. English Royalists
To show Langdale’s actions after entering Lancashire is best from those who wrote at the time. This gives the background to why the Scottish invasion force split at or near Hornby.
Hamilton Page 453
“….Our March into Lancashire being concluded, the vanguard was led by Langdale, who undertook to provide guides and pioneers, and to get us intelligence ; but the want of this helped us to our ruin, for he was well nigh totally routed before we knew that it was Cromwell who attacked us. And here the cavalry complaining of scarcity of forage in these parts, and their officers pretending a necessity to enlarge quarters, desired liberty to advance before the infantry, against which the general gave many reasons : yet to prevent a mutiny he yielded to it, not apprehending how near the enemy was, of which we were secure, resting on Langdale’s intelligence ; which was only that one Ashton had raised two or three thousand presbyterians together to stop our march and amuse us, pretending it was because we came out of Scotland without the approbation of the kirk….”
Turner page 62
“….The vanguard is constantly given to Sir Marmaduke, upon condition he should constantly furnish guides, pioneers for clearing the ways, and which was more than both these, to have good and certain intelligence of all the enemies motions. But whether it was by our fate or his neglect, want of intelligence helped to mine us….”
Ormerod Page 267 Langdale’s letter from Nottingham Castle 1648:
“…I was in at Settle and Gigleswick, with about 3000 foot and 600 Horse, the 13 of August, where hearing the Parliament forces were gathered together, and marching towards me, I went to acquaint Duke Hamilton therewith to Horneby, where he determined for Preston, where (his army being numerous in foot) he might have the greater advantage upon his enemy in those enclosed Countries. I Marched neere Clitherow towards Preston; in the March I met with the Lord Callender, and divers of the Scottish officers Quartered in my way, with whom I was resolved to march to Preston, but for the present the Intelligence was, that the Parliament Forces were divided, some part whereof weie marched to Colne, and so to Manchester, to relieve that Towne in case we should presse upon it. This made the Officers of Horse more negligent of repayring to Preston, but Quartered wide in the Country. The same night certayne intelligence came that Lt. Generall Cromwell with all his Forces was within 3 miles of my Quarters, which I immediately sent to the Duke, and told it to my Lord Leviston to acquaint Lt. Generall Middleton therewith, and drew my Forces together in a field, and so marched towards Preston betimes in the morning…”
18.104.22.168. Irish Royalists
The role of Monro’s actions are shown in Hamiltons’s Memoires. A few extracts are:
Hamilton wrote orders for Monro at Kirkby Lonsdale.
“…To stay at that place and wait for some cannon out of Scotland and to conduct them to the army. But withal, in case it should happen he were attacked by the enemy, not to engage, but to make his retreat back to Appleby-castle or Carlisle, and there to secure himself till further orders….
Sir George Monro and those with him followed upon his rear to Kirby-Lumsdale,…. sir Philip Musgrave and sir Thomas Tilslie, the one lieutenant-general, the other major-general to sir Marmaduke Langdale, with two regiments of foot then raised in the northern counties, joined him…” (Hamilton page 453)
This order from Hamilton to Monro, effectively reduced the Royalist army by 3000 to 6000 soldiers
Turner Appendix 1 page 242
“…General Major George Monro had arrived by this time from Ireland, with two thoufand foot, and one thoufand horfe, and marchd straight after the armie to England…”
The actions of Monro after Hamilton’s Orders:
“…At Kirbie-Lumsdale sir George Monro and the gentlemen who were with him stayed a few days, to learn the certainty of the duke’s condition, the reports whereof changed hourly: but fearing the worst of the duke, and the danger of being surprised, they retired to Kirbie-Steven; and getting no certain advertisements of the duke or his army, thought it fit to send for advice to Scotland, and to be still drawing northward through Northumberland. When they came to Morpeth…” (Hamilton page 469)
Remark: Monro’s Irish forces took no part in the Royalist invasion at Preston, Wigan or Winwick Pass.
22.214.171.124. Royalist Conclusions
The Scottish on invading England on the 8 July by the order of the Scottish Parliament, who declared in writing their intention to the English Parliament the very same day. Advancing with only half the force the Scottish Parliament had promised, with troops ill prepared and a lack of ammunition. The Scottish forces had to contend with weather conditions, where streams were rivers, unable to ford apart from at bridges, making marching forward heavy going. These conditions were throughout England from Carlisle to at least Warrington, as noted by persons involved at the time.
“…the true reasons of the Dukes march, as also how he was forced to march with halfe regiments, ill armd and worse disciplined, in the rainiest summer ever Europe saw…” (Turner Page 242-243)
The Joint Royalist forces that nearly assembled in and around Hornby as a combined Scottish, English and Irish Royalist force, failed.
8.9. Battle of Preston: 17August 1648
After his meeting with Hamilton at Hornby, Langdale marched to Clitheroe via Settle, on the way to Preston. At Clitheroe, Langdale was attacked by Cromwell’s advanced Parliamentary Forces, which steadily increased as the Horse and Foot came up.
From there it was a rolling skirmish up to Preston.
Battle of Preston map www.bcw-project.org
The battle itself is apply described in Ormerod:
Cromwell’s letters 17 and 20 August 1648 (pages 255 to 263);
Langdale’s Letter (page 267); and
Hamilton’s memoires (page 454 to 457).
Hamilton and Calander were resolved not to make a stand at Preston preferring to march South. In the letter written by Langdale (Ormerod page 268)
“….The same night certayne intelligence came that Lt. Generall Cromwell with all his Forces was within 3 miles of my Quarters, which I immediately sent to the Duke, and told it to my Lord Leviston to acquaint Lt. Generall Middleton therewith, and drew my Forces together in a field, and so marched towards Preston betimes in the morning, where I found the Duke and Lord Coillender with most part of the Scottish Foot drawne up. Their resolution was to march to Wiggan, giving little credit to the Intelligence that came the night before, but suffer their horse to continue in their quarters 10 and 12 miles off.
Within halfe an hower of our meeting, and by that time I was drawen into the close neere Preston, the Enemy appeared with a small body of Horse; the Scotts continue their resolution for Wiggan, for which end they drew their Foote over the Bridge. The Enemy coming the same way that I had marched, fell upon my Quarter, where we continued skirmishing six houres, in all which time the Scott sent me no relief: they had very few horse come up, so as those they sent me at last were but few, and were soone beaten : but if they had sent me 1000 Foote to have flanked the Enemy, I doubt not the day had been ours. Yet I kept my post, with various successe, many times gathering ground of the Enemy ; and as the Scots acknowledg, they never saw any Foote fight better than mine did….”
This letter from Langdale confirms that Hamilton and Callander did not intend to make a stand at Preston.
‘Their resolution was to march to Wiggan, giving little credit to the Intelligence that came the night before.’
‘the Enemy appeared with a small body of Horse; the Scotts continue their resolution for Wiggan, for which end they drew their Foote over the Bridge.’
But Hamilton and Callander were forced to stand at Preston, due to the encroaching Parliamentarian forces of Cromwell fighting Langdale’s Forces.
In Hamilton’s memoires page 454 – 455 it is shown that there is a conflict in the line of command of orders given by Callander and Hamilton to Baillie. The result of this conflict is that there was a delay in sending up the foot at the right time to support Langdale.
Hamilton memoires page 456:
“….This was the issue of that day, wherein our loss was great; many were killed, and many were taken prisoners, and we lost more who run away; two brigades of foot were totally routed, and either killed, taken, or dispersed; nor did we ever hear any more of Monro and the Irish forces, nor of the rear-guard of horse that was on the moor ; so that we begun to look on ourselves as broken, being in a country where we might look for nothing but unfriendliness and treachery. Upon this sad juncture, the general called a council of war of all the chief officers in the army….”
Hamilton memoires page 457:
The council of war was divided either to stay and wait for Middleton’s Horse or march south, Hamilton resolved to march.
“…So Calander’s authority prevailed for a march; the greatest prejudice thereof was, that they could not carry their ammunition with them, for the country people, whose horses carried it, had fled away ; so that there was a necessity of leaving it behind them. To have fired it would have discovered their march, and so done them mischief; therefore it was appointed to be blown up by a train, which being neglected by him to whom it was trusted, it fell into Cromwell’s hands next day : all the soldiers could carry with them was only their flasks full. Our march was very sad, the way being exceeding deep, the soldiers both wet, hungry, and weary ; and all looked on their business as more than half ruined…”
What was also not on the side of the Scottish was the weather, (Hamilton’s Memoires page 455) :
“….Langdale and other officers with him, with intention to pass the river below it, which at that time could not be ridden by reason of the rains which fell continually ; for all this while there were such deluges of rains not only over England, but over all Europe, that every brook was a river, which made the march very heavy both to horse and foot : nor was it possible for the foot to keep one musket fixed, most part of the time we were in a body in England….”
‘The Scottish retreat from Preston’ engraving by Cattermole 1832
“…The next morning Hamilton came to Wigan, and found almost the half of the Royalist foot had fallen off by the way, that were seen no more. But the misfortunes grew; for Middleton, upon the advice he got, had marched to the bridge of Preston another way, where he found the enemies quiet, fires burning, and none by them but some sutlers; wherefore hearing the Scots army were gone to Wigan, Middleton followed their tract, and was hotly pursued all the way by the enemy’s horse, with whom he skirmished all along till he came within a mile of us : and indeed he made that retreat, which was seven miles long, very gallantly, and was well seconded both by colonel Lockhart and colonel Hurry, the last getting a dangerous shot in his head, which occasioned his being taken prisoner. The enemy lost several men, and among others one Colonel Thornly, accounted one of their best officers.
At Wigan, the Scottish army met with the Horse (cavalry) and drew up in battalia in the moor, and some thought of fighting ; but it was found to be impossible, the place not being large, and environed with enclosures, for which could not have maintained a long battle for a want of ammunition…” (Hamilton’s Memoires Page 457)
Note: The death of Colonel Thornly was one of the charges laid against the Duke of Hamilton in his trial as a traitor under his English Title: the Earl of Cambridge in February 1649
Cromwell upon discovering the arrival of Middleton’s Horse hotly pursued the Scottish forces as they retreated back towards Wigan.
Cromwell writes in his letter 20 August 1648 (Ormerod page 263):
“….I ordered Collonel Thornhaugh to Command two or three Regiments of Horse, to follow the enemy if it were possible, to make him stand till wee could bring up the army. The enemy marched away seven or eight thousand foote and about four thousand Horse, wee followed him with about three thousand foote, and two thousand five hundred Horse and dragoones, and in this prosecution that worthy gentleman Collonel Thornhaugh, pressing too boldly, was slaine…”
8.10. Skirmishes at Wigan
So Hamilton, Calander, Baillie, Turner and Langdale retreated towards Wigan, shortly after by using a different road from Wigan. Middleton, Lockhart and Hurry arrived at Preston, discovering that Hamilton had marched south. They turned to return to Wigan hotly pursued by Collonel Thornhaugh’ horse with skirmishes all the way.
It is written that Colonel Thornley was slain during a skirmish with Middleton during his retreat to Wigan. (Turner Page 65)
In Wigan Town Centre, Turner was injured by his own troops:
“….I marched with the last brigade of foot through the town of Wigan, I was alarmed that our horse behind me were beaten, and run several ways, and that the enemy was in my rear. I faced about with that brigade, and in the market place ferrd the pikes together, shoulder to shoulder, to keep up any should charge, and sent orders to the rest of the brigades before to continue their march, and follow Lieutenant Generall Baillie, who was before them.
It was then night, but the moone shone bright. A regiment of horse of our own appeared first, riding very disorderly. I got them to stop, till I commanded my pikes to open, and give way for them to ride or run away, since they would not stay. But my pikemen being demented, (as I think we were all), would not hear me, and two of them run full tilt at me. One of their pikes, which was intended for my bellie, I griped with my left hand; the other run me near two inches in the innerside of my right thigh; all of them crying, that all of us were Cromwells men. This was an unseasonable wound, for it made me after that night unservicable. This made me forget all rules of modestie, prudence and discretion. I rode to our horse, and desird them to charge through these (Scottish) foot. They, fearing the hazard of the pikes, stood. I then made a cry come from behind them, that the enemy was upon them. This encouraged them to charge my foot so fiercely, that the pikemen threw down their pikes
and got into houes. All the horse galloped away; and, as I was told afterwards, rode not thorough, but over our whole foot, treading them down; and in this confusion Colonell Lockheart was trode down from his horse, with great danger of his life. Though the enemy was near, yet I beat drums to gather my men together. Shortly after came Middletone, with some horse. I told him what a disaster I had met with, and what a greater I expected. He told me, he would ride before and make the horfe halt…”
Turner and the remaining brigade of foot (presumably led by Turner’s second in command, Lieutenant Colonel George Meldrum), followed Middleton by marching all night where the next day, he then met up with Baillie. (Turner memoires pages 66-67; Earwaker pages 208-214 reference to ‘Wigan Market Place’ and Furgol page 253).
At Wigan, Major Cholmley came to Captain Spencer and Hodgson, drank strong waters with them and then parted. The next morning Spencer and Hodgson heard the news that Cholmley was slain in pursuing the enemy. Spencer and Hodgson then rode on to Winwick. (Hodgson Memoirs page 121-122).
This confirms that Major Cholmley was slain in or near Wigan. There is uncertainty whether the person buried at Winwick Church named Majar Chumley is in fact Major Chomley as detailed by Hodgson. The recorded area where Major Cholmley was slain (Hodgson Memoirs) is approximately 12 miles from the said place of burial (Winwick Parish burial Register September 1648).
At Wigan, Hamilton considered to make a stand against Cromwell’s Parliamentary Forces. But he found the land was not suitable to stand against Cromwell’s forces; the moor generally being open land and enclosed into fields and to maintain for this type of open battle formation, which could have lasted many hours. But due to a lack of ammunition, left behind at Preston, made the stand impossible to maintain. So Hamilton decided to press on towards Warrington. (Hamilton’s memoirs Page 457).
“…We meeting with our cavalry drew up in battalia in the moor, and some thought of fighting ; but we found it impossible, the place not being large, and environed with
enclosures, which we could not have maintained long for want of ammunition. So we were resolved to march all night, and designed for Warrington-bridge…”
(Hamilton’s Memoirs page 457 – 458)
Cromwell’s letter 20 August 1648 Warrington, describes the actions at Wigan and indicates the enemy were assembled (drew up within three miles of Wigan) but then left (they drew off again); which confirms Hamilton’s intention to make a stand on the moor before Wigan but then changed his mind. Cromwell also confirms the weather conditions they were facing, as detailed by the other persons at that time, where rain and ground conditions were terrible to march or ride.
“….At last the Enemy drew up within three miles of Wigan; and by that time our Army was come up, they drew off again, and recovered Wigan before we could attempt any thing upon them. We lay that night in the field close by the Enemy; being very dirty and weary, and having marched twelve miles of such ground as I never rode in all my life, the day being very wet. We had some skirmishing, that night, with the Enemy, near the Town; where we took General Van Druske and a Colonel, and killed some principal Officers, and took about a hundred prisoners; where I also received a Letter from Duke Hamilton, for civil usage towards his kinsman Colonel Hamilton, whom he left wounded there. We took also Colonel Hurry and Lieutenant-Colonel Innes, sometimes in your service. The next morning the Enemy marched towards Warrington, and we at the heels of them.…” (Ormerod page 264, Cromwell’s letter 20 August 1648 at Warrington)
8.10.1. Wigan Skirmish addition
Because Middleton was still on retreat from Preston and Turner delayed due to injury,
Hamilton, Calander, Langdale and Baillie were resolved to march all night towards Warrington. The next morning after passing through Newton on the way to Warrington, they came to a most advantageous place where a stand could be made, which was not possible at Wigan due to the lay of the land.
This most advantageous place was called Red Bank or Winwick Pass, as described in Hodgson’s Memoirs, page 122:
“We (Parliamentarians) pursued to Winwick, where we found the horse was fled to Warrington bridge, and the foot drawn up in a most advantageous place.”
Turner’s Memoirs (page 65) mentions “I marched with the last brigade of foot through the town of Wigan” and in particular “..in the market place”.
Dr. Kuerden’s Manuscript 1695 refers to two recorded travels: (reproduced by Earwaker Page 208 -214)
- Warrington to Wigan Post Road; and
- Winwick to Wigan by the lesser used road.
Both roads mentioned as part of Dr.Kuerden’s travel in the area in Wigan called ‘Market Place’. This means from the Market Place there are two roads to Warrington, one via the Post Road to the west of Winwick Church and one via the lesser used road to the east of Winwick Church, as described by Dr. Kuerden. Especially when Turner states: “sent orders to the rest of the brigades before to continue their march, and follow Lieutenant Generall Baillie, who was before them” and, “Shortly after came Middletone, with some horse……He told me, he would ride before and make the horfe halt.”
So when Baillie, Middleton and Turner left the Market Place in Wigan:
Which road did they take on leaving Wigan to Warrington?
This is a question that could be asked of Hamilton, Callander and Langdale, and also of Cromwell’s forces.
If it was the lesser used road by either all or part of the Royalist or Parliamentary Forces heading to Warrington.
This road passes through Hermitage Green to the east of Winwick Pass, then the defensive position used by the Scottish Royalist at St Oswald’s and Newton Brook, Red Bank Area, might not have been a consideration. As the lesser road bypasses Red Bank as it heads to Winwick Church and on to Warrington.
If the Parliamentary Forces had used the lesser road then what Cromwell wrote in his letter to Parliament on 20 August 1648 at Warrington, raises questions?
Conversely as Hodgson page 122 wrote:
“We (Parliamentarians) pursued to Winwick, where we found the horse was fled to Warrington bridge, and the foot drawn up in a most advantageous place.”
Therefore, from the lesser road at Hermitage Green, this most advantageous place is not plausible in pursuit to Winwick.
So the road used by all Forces on 18 to 19 August 1648, had to be the post road from Wigan to Warrington, via Ashton and Newton-in-the-Willows, where this most advantageous place is seen as described by Cromwell, Hodgson and Sanderson.
The Wigan to Warrington section of the London to Carlisle Post Road is shown in detail in John Ogilby’s ‘Britannia’ 1675 showing the post roads survey of the country in strip form. Ogilby made the first survey of the roads of England and Wales, the results being published in a folio volume entitled Britannia, Vol. 1…..a Geographical and Historical Description of the Principal Roads thereof, 1675.
John Ogilby, Road Maps, from Britannia. 1675 edition (?) Plate number 37.
The Road from London to Carlisle. Contains the route from Garstang to Darleston.
8.11. The decisive battle of Winwick Pass 19 August 1648.
A combination of maps from the Winwick and Hume Tithe Map 1838 at Warrington Museum, www.british-history.ac.uk maps and the 1745 map on page 54 from Historic Towns of the Merseyside area 1988 by R.A. Philpott to show an impression of the battle formation
for Winwick Pass 19 August 1648 added by R. Ward 2014.
(The precise locational details as to the respective regiments are currently under review, but the above gives a fair representation, see Further Work.)
8.11.1. Scottish decide to make a stand at Winwick Pass
After Hamilton decided not to make a stand at the Moor near Wigan, he marched south towards Warrington following the Royal Post Road, through
Ashton-in-Makerfield to Newton-in-the-Willows along the High Street, passing the chapel built under the patronage of Robert Banastre, the forth Lord of the barony of Newton. Here the road descends to the bridge over the brook at Newton.
Note: The Bridge over Newton Brook in 1648 is not the Bridge in use today (2014) but the crossing of the Brook was approximately 100 metres further upstream in
Willow Park. (Philpott page 19).
The waters so full to overflowing making crossing only by the bridge. For throughout Hamilton’s march through England every river, stream and brook were full of rains making them only fordable to cross by the bridge.
“Every brook was a river, which made the march very heavy to both Horse and Foot”, (Hamilton page 455),
Which meant: roads to what they could be called, by foot was demoralising, by horse was tiring and by cart was nearly impossible, making progress slow; owing to the prevailing weather conditions of torrential rains throughout England for the time of year. Especially made more fraught about the uncertainty of how close Cromwell’s army was.
Hamilton continued to march on to Warrington over the Newton bridge, passing by the water mill the Scottish rode up Mill Lane, (Mill Lane was the original name of the road from Newton-le-Willows to Hermitage Green Lane, due to the two watermills on this road, before it was renamed to Winwick Road in 19th century). Then at the brow of the hill on Mill Lane, the defensive stand was first observed, passing Newton Parks on the left and with the Manor of Hey3. area on the right. The Scottish descended Mill Lane to the Red Bank mill area, where St Oswald’s brook flows into Newton brook, with the only crossing point along the road to Warrington, being the bridge that fords St Oswald’s brook. Here the road to Warrington rises betwixt two advantageous grounds, called Red Bank (Winwick Pass).
To the left, a narrow lane (Hermitage Green Lane), in a steep sided valley, along which St Oswald’s brook flows; and to the right, Cop Holt Wood and banking, a natural defensive position having with the advantage of Newton brook beneath. Both brooks being unnaturally swollen from the rains, the ground saturated and unstable underfoot, making fording difficult, apart from, at the bridge on the post road to Warrington.
Sketches of the Red Bank (Winwick Pass) area in 1648 and 2012 by R. Ward
Although, Hamilton wanted to make a stand at Wigan, (Hamilton’s memoirs Page 457), this advantageous ground at Red Bank or Winwick Pass made it possible for the Scottish to stand against the ensuing Cromwell’s Forces. Hamilton and/or Calander presumably ordered Baillie to make a stand at Red Bank with his Regiments of Foot, so that Baillie could re-join Hamilton at Warrington after the stand was successful.
Hamilton, with Calander, Langdale and the Scottish vanguard then rode off to Warrington, to defend the bridge over the River Mersey. This gave the opportunity for Ballie to re-join Hamilton at Warrington later, after the stand at Winwick Pass was successful. From there, Hamilton’s Plan was to cut the bridge, with the aim to reunited the Scottish Foot and Horse, so that he could march further south in to England, in hope to join up with the other Royalist troops from Wales and surrounding counties.
8.11.2. Baillie prepares the Scottish stand at Winwick Pass
Ballie presumably used Cop Holt Farm area on the south side of Winwick Pass as his headquarters due to the observational advantage over the Red Bank area.
Based on Turner’s memoirs page 67,
“….Baillie, who had refted a litle, intreated me to goe
into fome houfe and repofe on a chaire ; for I had fleepd none in tuo
nights, and eate as litle. I alighted, bot the conftant alarums of the
enemies approch made me refolve to ride forward to Warinton, which
was bot a mile…”
makes it plausible that the said house and the distance to Warrington is Cop Holt Farm. Together with Turner’s mentioning of the constant alarms of the enemies approach could indicated Cromwell preparing his army on the northern side of Winwick Pass with the aim to attack the Scottish army on the southern side of Winwick Pass.
The Scottish stand consisted of:
- a body of Foot with pikes and musket placed on the road to
- betwixt the two advantageous grounds, called Red Bank:
- to the left, “..a narrow lane (on the south side of Hermitage Green Lane), made a stand with a Body of Pikes, and lined the hedges with muskets…” as detailed by Heath’s Chronicles page 178; and
- to the right, at Cop Holt Wood, lodged a body of Foot with musket.
[Note: it is not clear whether the land directly north of Cop Holt Wood, between the circular course of Newton Brook, could have been an advanced defensive position for the Scottish Foot to make a stand at this location. A problem with this forward defensive position is: any retreat from or reinforcement to this advanced position would prove problematic due to Newton Brook being an obstacle, making any Scottish Foot effectively an isolated group with their only escape to the west to the Manor of Hey area.]
Based on Sanderson’s letter dated 20 August 1648 at Warrington:
“… the reare of their foot at a Wood neer Winwicke; The Earl of Roxburgh’s Brigade, commanded by Cllonnell Douglas, Buckleugh’s Regiment, General Adjutant Turner’s Regiment (who was Sincler’s Major) the Lord Hume’s regiment, and some of other regiments, they stood to it for three houre…”
he has highlighted which Scottish regiments made the stand at Winwick Pass.
- Where Sanderson writes “Buckleugh’s Regiment”, this was the former name for Lieutenant General William Baillie’s Regiment. (Furgol)
- Also Sanderson details in his letter Turner’s Regiment was at Winwick Pass, despite Turner, himself stating in his memoirs, he rode off to Warrington:“..I marchd, however, all that night, till it was faire day ; and then Baillie, who had rested a litle, intreated me to goe into fome houfe and repofe on a chaire ; for I had fleepd none in tuo nights, and eate as litle, I alighted, bot the conftant alarums of the enemies approch made me refolve to ride forward to Warrinton, which was bot a mile…”So Turner by riding off to Warrington, he left his regiment under his second in command Meldrum, together with Baillie at Winwick Pass. (Furgol)
- The House of Lords Journal Volume 10 – 25 August 1648 states that the above mentioned Regiments were taken prisoners at Warrington.
- The precise Scottish numbers of Regiments and soldiers that stood at Winwick Pass is still on-going under research (see Further Work).
Middleton presumably arrives at Winwick Pass and talks to Baillie
Turner and Middleton met each other at Wigan Town Centre. Then Middleton rode in advance of the injured Turner and his brigade of foot. Presumably, Middleton saw Baillie at Winwick Pass and informed Baillie of Turner’s mishap. Then Middleton carried on towards Warrington to re-group with Hamilton and Callander at Warrington bridge.
Then Turner arrives at Winwick Pass and meets Baillie
Later on the morning of 19 August 1648 Turner and his brigade of foot arrived and met up with Baillie at Winwick Pass near to Cop Holt Farm. Baillie suggested to Turner to get off his horse, go into the house, presumably at Cop Holt Farm, and sit in a chair to rest.
Turner dismounted his horse, but the constant alarms of the enemies approach made him resolve to ride forward to Warrington, which was according to Turner but a mile away. (Turner Page 67).
As Turner decided to ride off to Warrington, leaving Meldrum in command of his regiment, with Baillie at Winwick Pass.
When Turner arrived at Warrington, he found that Hamilton and Calander had already left Warrington with orders left for Baillie and his Foot to fend for themselves. This was even before Baillie and Cromwell had engaged in battle at Winwick Pass. (Turner page 67)
8.11.3. Advance of Cromwell’s Parliamentary forces towards Winwick Pass
Cromwell’s Parliamentary Forces approached through Newton, as Cromwell rode up Mill Lane towards Warrington, where at the brow of the hill on Mill Lane, he then saw the Scottish Royalist in battle formation (or stand) at a most advantageous place called Red Bank or Winwick Pass.
“…We could not engage the Enemy until we came within three miles of
Warrington; and there the Enemy made a stand, at a place near Winwick…”
(Ormerod page 264 Cromwell’s Letter, Warrington 20 August 1648).
“We (Parliamentarians) pursued to Winwick, where we found the horse was fled to Warrington bridge, and the foot drawn up in a most advantageous place.”
(Hodgson’s Memoirs page 122).
Hodgson shows two pointers here:
- Hodgson, who was in Colonel John Bright’s regiment, was with Cromwell, when Cromwell discovered the Scottish was in battle formation at Winwick Pass; and
- Hodgson writes the Scottish battle formation consisted of only Foot with no Horse present in the Scottish formation at Winwick Pass, as the Scottish Horse had fled to Warrington bridge.
Cromwell immediately set his troops either side of Mill Lane in readiness to fight:
- On the left in Newton Parks, which was bounded to the east by the Coppice Wood brook and valley that runs to St Oswald’s brook. Major Sanderson’s Troop and Captain Thomas Lilburne’s Troops were placed out-most in Newton Parks, who were part of Colonel Robert Lilburn’s regiment.
To the left of the wing next to Sanderson Troop was Colonel Twizleton’s Regiment, (Sanderson’s Letter); and
- On the right in and around the Manor of Hey area, bounded to the west by the Newton Brook where Parliamentary Horse and Foot assembled facing the Scottish.
Note: The precise Parliamentary numbers of Regiments and soldiers that stood at Winwick Pass is still on-going under research (see Further Work)
Sketches of the Red Bank (Winwick Pass) area from Newton facing South in 1648 by R. Ward 2014
Schematic representation for the Battle of Red Bank (Winwick Pass) 19 August 1648
along the Post Road of the Scottish and Parliament Battle formation by R Ward 2014
8.11.4. Cromwell attacks Baillie but the Royalist Stand is resolute
The Parliamentarian Force drew down with Horse and Foot towards Winwick Pass, finding at their first appearance the waters in Newton Brook and St Oswald’s Brook were formidable obstacles. The Scottish maintained the road south of the bridge on Mill Lane, together where their Foot placed betwixt two advantageous grounds, lined with Scottish musket and pike. On the southern side repelled the Parliamentary advance for several hours of musket shot, cannon and push of pikes, to the point that both sides failed to advance or overwhelmed the other, with losses on both sides. Sanderson, whose Troop of Horse was a part of Colonel Lilburne’s regiment positioned on Cromwell’s left in Newton Parks records: Lilburne’s regiment had casualties. The Scottish stand on the southern side of Winwick Pass, even after several hours fighting became formidable for Cromwell to overcome. Thus Cromwell order a retreat in order to re-group and consider his options.
Sanderson’s letter explains
“….they (Royalists) stood stoutly to it for three houre……we (Parliament) lost some men, every Troop of our Regiment lost two….”;
Ormerod page 264 264 Cromwell’s letter details,
“ours and theirs coining to push of pike and very close charges………..they (Royalists) maintaining the passe with great resolution for many hours……….We held them in some dispute till our army came up…..”; and
Hodgson page 122 writes,
“and snaffled our forlorn, and put them to retreat.”
8.11.5. Reinforcement of Cromwell’s Parliamentary forces towards Winwick Pass
After several hours fighting Cromwell decided to retire a safe distance from any Scottish musket or cannon fire from the Pass, close to the farmhouse called “The Lodge” in Newton Parks, which Cromwell probably used as a temporary headquarters.
While he waited for reinforcements from Colonel Thomas Pride’s Regiment of Foot (Heath page 178), Cromwell was able to regroup and decide tactics, where he could have sourced information by one of the following possibilities:
- Cromwell could have sent scouts to survey the lay of the land; or
- According to later written sources, it is claimed that locals showed Cromwell the way round,
whereby the Horse could ride round via Hermitage Green, to the south side of
Hermitage Green Lane and approach the Scottish defence from the east.
Regardless of how Cromwell gained the information, he used it to formulate a tactic to defeat the Scottish defensive stand, once Colonel Pride’s Regiment of Foot arrived.
Whilst Colonel Pride’s and Cromwell’s Force of Foot assembled to perform a joint attack backed up by the Horse on the Mill Lane and St Oswald’s bridge area.
Cromwell ordered the Regiments of Horse on the far-left on Newton Parks to ride round via Monks House at Hermitage Green by the way of the information he had gathered:
- One part of the Horse rode to the rear of the Scottish defences at Winwick to cut-off the Scottish retreat to Warrington (Sanderson); and
- The other part of the Horse rode to attack the Scottish defence on the south of Hermitage Green Lane valley.
While Cromwell observed from “The Lodge” headquarters area in Newton Parks, the Horse advancing towards the Scottish from the east. Cromwell then ordered Pride’s regiment to attack the Scottish along Mill Lane,
“until the coming up of Col.Pride’s regiment of Foot, who after a sharp dispute put those brave fellows to the run” (Heath page178).
The ‘two pronged’ attack caused the Scottish into disarray, to which the Scottish ran towards Winwick Town.
(It is plausible that some Scottish ran westward towards the Burtonwood area, Hodgson page 122 writes: “The next day the country people brought in prisoners by drifts.”)
Once Baillie saw the Scottish defence was untenable, Baillie rode from Cop Holt Farm towards Warrington. In order to alleviate himself from the advancing Parliamentary Troops of Horse galloping towards Winwick Town, Baillie rode towards Winwick Rectory situated to the west below Winwick Church. Then he rode on through the parkland of Winwick Rectory to Warrington, in order to meet up with Hamilton at Warrington bridge.
”…till our Army came up;….. but our men, by the blessing of God, quickly recovered it, and charging very home upon them, beat them from their standing; where we killed about a thousand of them, and took, as we believe, about two thousand prisoners…” (Omerod page 264)
According to Major Sanderson’s Letter, several Troops of Horse on the far left wing on Newton Parks, “careered up to Winwick Town.”
Hodgson page 122 writes:
“So we being drawn up, horse and foot, to give them a charge…………but their foot threw down their arms, and run into Winwick church”
Also shown in Hamilton page 458:
“…the enemy being close in our rear. We maintained it some time against the horse, but were driven away from it when the foot came up…”
8.11.6. Winwick Pass Conclusion
The above mentioned letters of Cromwell and Sanderson show how the reinforcements from Colonel Pride and the Horse attack to the Scottish rear was the tactical factor that broke the Scottish Invasion Force and won the day for Cromwell at Winwick Pass.
Where Cromwell had been victorious against the main English Royalist forces commanded by Sir Marmaduke Langdale, Cromwell failed to resolutely defeat the Scottish Forces under Hamilton at Preston. With Cromwell’s determination to stop Hamilton at all costs, Cromwell eventually discovered the Scottish Force of Foot were in battle formation at Winwick Pass. Cromwell saw his opportunity to defeat the Scottish Forces. But as Hodgson states the Scottish “..snaffled our forlorn.”, due to the defensive position of the land. Cromwell after several hours of continuous fighting of his Parliamentary Horse, musket and pike against, to what seemed the immovable Scottish musket, cannon and pike. Cromwell decided to regroup and discovering a way around to the rear of the Scottish position, which, with and along with reinforcements, this dual attack, broke the Scottish to the run. From that moment Cromwell forces routed the Scottish, where it is suggested whereabouts a thousand were killed. The remaining Scottish Foot ran towards Winwick Town.
8.11.7. Skirmish at Winwick Town
When Cromwell ordered his ‘two pronged’ attack, it made possible for several individual skirmishes to take place in and around Winwick Town, as recorded by those who took part giving similar but different accounts of what happened. So to describe the skirmishes at Winwick here are the verbatim records of those present or wrote about the action there, at the time.
According to Heath page 178:
“they were Commanded by a little Spark in a blew Bonnet (Majar Chumley)4. , that performed the part of an excellent Commander, and was killed on the place. After this, they never turned Head, but ran, crying Mercy, Mercy, (so that the noise thereof was heard at 5 Miles distance) until they came to Warrington-Bridge.”
According to Sanderson’s letter:
“carreered up to Winwicke Towne, got before the Scots, and stopt them, so that many hundreds of them were slaine there.
In the Field and the Towne was slain in that three houres about 1600 men, and a whole Church full of prisoners takjen, vve think there could be no lesse than fifteen hundred Prisoners in the Church.”
According to Hodgson page 122:
“but their foot threw down their arms, and run into Winwick church, about four or five thousand; and there we set a guard about them.”
Oliver Cromwell Letter (Ormerod page 264)
“…and charging very home upon them, beat them from their standing; where we killed about a thousand of them, and took, as we believe, about two thousand prisoners…”
Hodgson’s Memoirs informs that the Scottish Horse appeared on the moor from Warrrington at Winwick. The question arises: Where does this Scottish Horse come from?
Especially, where Hodgson, page 122 wrote that the Scottish battle formation consisted of only Foot with no Horse present in the Scottish formation at Winwick Pass, as the Scottish Horse had fled to Warrington bridge.
“….We pursued to Winwick, where we found the horse was fled to Warrington bridge, and the foot drawn up in a most advantageous place, and snaffled our forlorn, and put them to retreat. So we being drawn up, horse and foot, to give them a charge, their horse appeared upon the muir from Warrington bridge ; but their foot threw down their arms, and run into Winwick church, about four or five thousand ; and there we set a guard about them….”
Comparison between what Hodgson wrote and what Turner wrote
- “and snaffled our forlorn” can be said to mean: “and came to an impass and stopped our attack”.
- “and put them to retreat.” indicates the Scottish at Winwick Pass also stopped to regroup.
- “So we being drawn up, horse and foot, to give them a charge, their horse appeared upon the muir from Warrington bridge” can be said to mean: So we assembled our horse and foot, then attacked again, where a Troop of Scottish Horse appears on the moor from Warrington bridge.
- This Scottish Horse is it from Warrington; or
- Baillie’s Officers on horses from Cop Holt Farm; or
- Did Hodgson misinterpret this Horse as Cromwell’s Horse via Hermitage Green as a Troop of Royalist Horse?
- Hence Hodgson then writes “..but their foot threw down their arms, and run into Winwick church..” infering that the appearance of this Horse was not Scottish Horse but Parliamentary Horse, whereby the Foot ran.
Where Hodgson writes: “their horse appeared upon the muir from Warrington bridge”; this conflicts with what Turner wrote.
“…I marchd, however, all that night, till it was faire day ; and then Baillie, who had refted a litle, intreated me to goe into fome houfe and repofe on a chaire ; for I had fleepd none in tuo nights, and eate as litle. I alighted, bot the conftant alarums of the enemies approch made me refolve to ride forward to Warinton, which was bot a mile ; and indeed I may fay I fleepd all that way, notwithftanding my wound. I thought to have found either the Duke or Calander, or both heere, bot I did not ; and indeed I was often told that Calander carried away the Duke with him, much againft his mind. Heere did the Lieutenant Generall of the foot meet with ane order, wherby he is required to make as good conditions for himfelfe and thofe under him as he could ; for the horfe wold not come backe to him, being refolvd to preferve themfelvs for a better time…”
Turner being the last of the Scots Army to reach Winwick Pass from Wigan, after getting off his horse realised that the enemy was approaching decided to ride to Warrington-bridge which was only a short distance from Winwick (Turner indicates it was but a mile), to find Hamilton had already left, this shortly after the enemy had approached Winwick Pass. Hamilton had left orders for Baillie to fend for himself and that the Horse would not come back.
Therefore, if before the enemy arrived at Winwick Pass, Hamilton had already left with orders: that no Horse would come back. If this was at Warrington Bridge then this will apply to Winwick Pass as well. Then and therefore, no Scottish Horse from Warrington appeared at Winwick as the Horse had already left with Hamilton heading to Utoxeter. Turner’s Memoirs are verified by Baillies Vindication Letter pages 455-457.
This is the conflict from what Hodgson wrote: “their horse appeared upon the muir from Warrington bridge”.Where did this Troop of Horse appears from?
- From Warrington (But Turner writes otherwise); or
- Cop Holt Farm (could be Baillie’s Troop supporting the defensive Foot at Hermitage Green Lane as support [But Hodgson indicates otherwise], or to order the Scottish Foot to retreat towards Winwick/Warrington [as Hodgson confirms]; or
- Did Hodgson misinterpret this Horse as Cromwell’s Horse attacking the Scottish Foot via Hermitage Green as a Troop of Royalist Horse?
Turner suggests this could not have been from Warrington.
- the assembled horse with Baillie at Cop Holt Farm rode towards the Scottish defensive stand to give orders to the Foot then all turned to leave towards Warrington when Cromwell’s Horse rode round via Hermitage Green; or
- Hodgson could have misinterpret this horse from Cromwell’s Horse via Hermitage Green towards the Scottish defending Foot along Hermitage Green Lane as a Troop of Royalist Horse from Warrington.
Further, the list of the prisoners captured at Warrington on 19 August 1648 and sent by Cromwell to the Houses of Parliament on 23 August 1648. Only lists Regiments of Foot and no Regiments of Horse, which indicates what Turner wrote is correct.
This leads to the conclusion that the Scottish stand had no Regiments of Horse at Winwick Pass only Regiments of Foot.
The only horses the Scottish had at Winwick Pass were the Officers in command of the Scottish Foot having their own individual horses as a honour to their rank of office.
8.11.8. Skirmish at Winwick Town Conclusion
From the various transcripts, the Scottish retreat was thwarted by the advance Parliamentarian Horse, and later by the remaining Parliamentary Foot and Horse. The Scottish made brave defensive skirmishes in and around Winwick Town, one place of a skirmish is said to be on Winwick Green, where it is claimed many were slain. The Scottish then ran again, many to Winwick Church, where they were made prisoners; others headed towards Warrington, closely followed by Cromwell’s Forces. Cromwell pressed on knowing that the Scottish Horse had to have ridden towards Warrington having the only bridge crossing the River Mersey that gave access to the south of England for miles around.
8.11.9. Capitulation at Warrington Bridge
Underneath are the verbatim records
5. from both sides as written at the time.
Hamilton Page 458
“…And here Calander, and most of the officers of the cavalry, pressed the general to march off, and leave the foot to capitulate; their reasons were strong, they had marched two nights, both under an extraordinary rain, and in very deep way, and were wet almost up to the middle, and had scarce eat any meat all that while ; they had no ammunition, the powder in their flasks being all wet ; so that to study to reserve them was to attempt an impossibility, and to lose all. The horses were also so weary with their long ill march, that they were for no present action ; but they getting off, and turning either back to Scotland, or joining with those who were in arms for the king in England, might still prove useful for his majesty’s service. Upon which the general was moved, though with great reluctancy, to leave the foot and Baylie to capitulate ; and in an account of this business drawn by Baylie, which the writer has seen (See Baillie’s Capitulation Letter), he says, Calander ordered his capitulating, and Middleton advised it; but says nothing of any orders he had from the duke for it. Baylie upon this occasion lost some of the patience he was usually master of; but having recovered himself as much as he could, he sent major Fleeming to Cromwell with articles, who not greeing to those, desired a parley with Baylie himself: and they met on the bridge, and agreed that the infantry should lay down their arms, and both officers and soldiers be prisoners of war to the parliament…”
According to Turner page 67-68:
“…I thought to have found either the Duke or Calander, or both heere, bot I did not ; and indeed I was often told that Calander carried away the Duke with him, much againft his mind. Heere did the Lieutenant Generall of the foot meet with ane order, wherby he is required to make as good conditions for himfelfe and thofe under him as he could ; for the horfe wold not come backe to him, being refolvd to preferve themfelvs for a better time. Baillie was furprifd with this, and lookeing upon that action which he was orderd to doe as full of diflionor, he lofd much of that patience of which naturallie he was mafter ; and befeechd any that wold to shoot him thorough the head.
At length, haveing fomthing compofd himfelfe, and much follicited by the officers who were by him, he wrote to Cromwell. I then told him, that fo long as ther was a refolution to fight, I wold not goe a foot from him ; bot now that they were to deliver themfelvs prifoners, I wold preferve my libertie as long as I could, and fo tooke my leave of him, carrying my wounded thigh away with me. I met immediatlie with Middletone, who fadlie condold the irrecoverable loffes of the tuo laft days. Within tuo hours after, Baillie and all the officers and fojors that were left of the foot, were Cromwells prifoners. I got my wound dreffd that morning by my oune furgeon, and tooke from him thefe things I thought neceflare for me, not knowing when I might fee him againe ; as indeed I never faw him after.
That unhappie day we met with Cromwell at Prefton, fome regiments of horfe, and our Irifh auxiliaries under the command of Sir George Monro (who were fifteene hundreth good foot and three hundredth horfe, and were appointed, againft all reafon of warre, to be conftantlie a days march behind us) all of them, I fay, finding the enemie had got betweene us and hem, marchd ftraight backe to Scotland, and joynd with E. Lainricks forces…”
Turner’s Memoires Appendix 1 page 245
(Turner corrects Bishop Guthry’s Observations of the Great Rebellion)
“…First, Sir Marmaduke got more amunition then could at that time be well fpard, and more then he defird ; and numbers of men were likewise fent to him ; and, by his miiintelligence, takeing Cromwell to be one Afhton, a prefbyterian gentleman in Lancafhire, he was inftrumentall in his oune and the Dukes mine.
Next, Lieutenant Generall Baillie had not fifteene hundreth foot with him, when, at Warinton bridge, finding they could make no refiftance, [he] renderd himself and them prisoners of war.
Thirdly, Middleton made no greater appearance then the Duke himfelfe did, nor was Middleton taken on the place; but tuo days after our first rencounter, he was taken in Staffordfhire by tuo countrey troopes, his horse flumbling under him.
Fourthly, after our march from Ribble bridge, the Duke never saw eight hundreth of his horfe in a bodie, which the Bishop, according to his custom, makes three thousand…”
Oliver Cromwell Letter (Ormerod page 264)
“… and prosecuted them home to Warrington Town; where they possessed the Bridge, which had a strong barricado and a work upon it, formerly made very defensive. As soon as we came thither, I received a message from General Baillie, desiring some capitulation. To which I yielded. Considering the strength of the Pass, and that I could not go over the River ‘Mersey’ within ten miles of Warrington with the Army, I gave him these terms: That he should surrender himself and all his officers and soldiers prisoners of war, with all his arms and ammunition and horses, to me; I giving quarter for life, and promising civil usage. Which accordingly is done: and the Commissioners deputed by me have received, and are receiving, all the arms and ammunition; which will be, as they tell me, about Four thousand complete arms; and as many prisoners: and thus you have their Infantry totally ruined. What Colonels and Officers are with General Baillie, I have not yet received the list…”
“…We pursued to Warrington Bridge, which the Scots kept till oour body came up. It is wonderful to see how many are slain all the way from Langrige Chappell to Preston, and from Preston six miles towards Lancaster, and all along the way from Preston to Wiggon, and in the field neer Wiggon; and from Wiggon to Warrington, all the high wayes, Corne fields,Meddows, Woods and Ditches strewed with dead bodies.
So soone as our Army drew up neer Warrington, Lieutenant General Bayly and the rest of the Scots officers sent to treat with Lieutenant Generall Cromwell, and have yeelded themselves and all their foot Army Prisoners, and are now in safe custody; they are the remainder of one and twenty Regiments; they yeelded all Armes, Horses, Colours, and Ammunition, 19 August. They are onely to have their lives and their goods saved, and the officers yo be furnished with horses for their journey. I prayse God both my Brothers and all my Officers are well, in health, and unhurt…”
Heath page 178
“…they never turned Head, but ran, crying, Mercy, mercy, (so that the noise thereof was heard at 5 miles distance) until they came to Warrington-Bridge, where Baily made Conditions for Quarter, and rendered himself and 4000 of them Prisoners. Middleton was likewise taken with 400 Horse in his flight homeward; Hamilton fled first to Namptwich with 3000 Horse, where the Country-people surprised 500 of them; and thence in haste to Uttoxeter…”
Baillie’s Capitulation and Vindication letter.
“…At Warrington, 22d August 1648.
We under Subfcrybers doe hereby declare upon our faith and honour, that We, with the rest of the Officers and Souldiers then present, did advyfe Lieut.-Gen. Baylie to accept of the under-written Capitulation, and consented to the famyn. before ever it was figned.
At Warrington-Bridge, 19th August 1648.
It is aggreit betwixt Lieut-Gen. Cromwell and Lieut-Gen. Baylie, that all armes, ammunition, collours, and other furniture and provifion of warre, be delyvered without imbattellment to Lieut-Gen. Cromwell, or to whom he ihall appoint. That Lieut-Gen. Baylie, with all Officers and Souldiers with him, lhall be prifoners of warre, and that with the confent of all the faid Officers and Souldiers.
That they who fhall foe rander themfelffes, the faid Lieu’.-General Cromwell fhall affure them all of faiff lyves, goods, and what elfe belongs to them, except horses, to be delyvered after they are difpofed of, for their better accomodation ; and in the meantyme to be furnifhed with horfes for their journeys.
We doe lykewayes declair upon our faith and honour, that thefe Reafons following, were the motives of this appointment:
1. We were abandoned by all our Horfemen.
2. The number of our Foot then with us did not exceed 26 or 2700.
3. Scarce the halfe of them had keeped their armes.
4. Since the 13th of Auguft they had received bot 2 pound of victuals a-peice.
5. There wes no ammunition at all amongft them.
6. When by Lieut-Gen. Baylie’s ordour they were brought from the open field nearer the Bridge of Waringtone, for the defence of the fame, into ane inclofure, the whole collours were not accompanied with fcarce 250 foldiours; the reft left their armes and ran to the Muir, from whence no perfuafion of Officers could bring them untill the Capitulation wes clofed.
7. Before Lieut-Gen. Baylie had brought up the reare of all that were uncutt off, my Lord Callander had given ordour to diverfe officers, to witt,
to Lieut-Col. Kerr, Major Knox, and Capt. Rutherfoord, as Kerr deponeth, to prepare for a baricade to the Bridge, and flopping of all the ftraggleing foot at the Bridge, till they could fee what beft appointment they could make for themfelff’es. Likewayes Lieut–Gen. Middletone did advyfe Col. Dowglas, by Collingtoun, and by mouth, Col. Turner, to caufe barricad the Bridgeend and guard it weell, and to tell Lieut-Gen. Baylie, when he fhould come up, to make the beft appoyntment he could for himfelff and the reft of the foot. The lyke commiffion he gave to Major Wm. Dowglas, and defyred that the reft of his horfemen might be fent him up from our reere.
Col. Dowglas. Lieut-Col. Alex1″. Houme. Lieut-Col. Johnstone. Lieut-Col. Andrew Kerr. Major W. Dowglas. Col. Wm. BuNTEN. (and the reft of the Officers in the field, who rode not away with the horfemen.)
Information would be had of the Reasons :
1. Why the Horfe quartered, ever after we went from Kendale, fo farr from the Foot ?
2. Why the Horfe drew not nearer the Foot after their parties were beat in unto Blackburne ? This being made known to the Generall Officers there, on Tuyfday in the night.
3. Why we left Prefton-Muir, and our provifion there ?
4. Why we left our quarter above Waltone, and our whole ammunition, and did not rather make our Horfemen come up ?
5. Why the refolution at Standifh Muir to fight wes altered ?
6. Why in the march from Wiggen, there wes not left fuch a reareguard of Horfe as wes requifite for the retreat of the Foot ? for want whereof the moft of them were ruyned.
(Baillies Vindication Letter pages 455-457)
8.11.10. The Battle of Winwick Pass: Capitulation at Warrington Summar
- At Preston, Hamilton considered (despite the gathered information to the contrary) ‘not to make a stand and fight but to march on south’, but was forced into a battle upon Cromwell’s Forces bearing down on them. Even after Cromwell had captured Langdale’s forces, Hamilton in a Council of War decided to march south rather than wait for Middleton to return from Wigan to Preston with his Regiments of Horse;
- At Wigan, Hamilton wanted to stand and fight but the conditions were not convenient;
- At Winwick Pass conditions were right and Hamilton ordered Baillie and his Regiments of Foot to make a Stand;
- At Warrington, due to weariness and conditions of the Troops, Hamilton and Calander’s forces “..were for no present action..” (Hamilton’s memoirs page 458) and marched off, either to return to Scotland or to meet up with other English Royalist troops further in England, where Hamilton and Calander left the Foot to capitulate at Warrington.
- So this means there was no attempt to stand at Warrington by Hamilton or the remaining Scottish Forces, because Hamilton physically marched off, leaving Baillie to capitulate at Warrington.
- Hamilton’s march south from Warrington, through Cheshire to Malpas, it is recorded in the House of Lords 25 August 1648 Hansard a Letter from Wilbraham, Sheriff of Cheshire to General Cromwell, dated 21 August 1648:
“….Yesternight, Twelve a Clock, Duke Hamilton sent a Trumpet (but without Writing), to render himself and the whole Army, upon Conditions. This inclosed we returned him by Two Gentlemen, who are not yet returned…”
Hamilton sent no response but marched on to Malpas then on to Stone, but was halted at Utoxeter where he was captured on 25 August 1648.
Note: Hamilton captured at Utoxeter, the articles he agreed to for his personal surrender were primary only concerned to his own needs as a prisoner and not that of the Scottish army. Hamilton was placed on trial in February 1649 as a Traitor to the Kingdom of England, not as the Duke of Hamilton, but under his English Title: the Earl of Cambridge. He was also charged for the murder of Colonel Thornley. The Earl of Cambridge was duly convicted and sentenced on all charges and executed.
- Middleton who had joined Hamilton at Malpas was captured at Stone when his horse fell on him.
- Calander escaped and fled to the Netherlands.
- Throughout the invasion from Appleby through to Warrington and presumably beyond, the rains being so torrential, it never ceased. The brooks were like rivers, where only the bridges made it possible to ford. The Scottish Troops progress was slow due to the conditions of the roads and fields.
- The Scottish Troops were only half the numbers the Scottish Parliament had promised and the troops were ill-prepared.
- On the 19August 1648 Cromwell having defeated the Royalist Regiment of Foot at the Battle of Winwick Pass, he marched to Warrington-bridge, to find the Scottish Commander Duke of Hamilton, Earl of Calander, Sir Marmaduke Langdale and approximately 3000 Horse had fled leaving the Foot to fend for themselves. Then later that evening Generals Adjutant Colonel Turner and Lieutenant-General Middleton left Warrington to follow Hamilton. On the evening of 19 August 1648 Lieutenant-General Baillie of the Foot under direct orders from Calander and other officers at Warrington bridge capitulated to Lieutenant-General Cromwell.
- Upon the capitulation Cromwell sent that night of 19 August 1648, by Express-Rider to the House of Commons news ‘that he had defeated the Scotch Army under Duke Hamilton.’
- On 20 August 1648 Cromwell sent a letter by Express-Rider to the House of Commons with a detailed letter describing the events of the 17, 18 and 19 August 1648.
- On 23 August 1648 Cromwell sent a letter by Express-Rider to the House of Commons with a detailed letter with the list of prisoners (in total 2547 recorded) taken at Winwick and Warrington, 19 August 1648.
- Lt Gen Baillie Royalist (equal third in command of the Scottish invasion with Lt Gen Middleton) and fought Lt Gen Cromwell Parliamentary at Winwick Pass, where later the same day at Warrington-Bridge 19th August 1648, Baillie was instructed to capitulate with orders from Calander (Second in command of the Scottish Army and Duke of Hamilton General of the Invading Scottish Army, whom both had fled before Baillie arrived at Warrington Bridge). The order to capitulate was confirmed by several officers including Turner and Middleton, at Warrington Bridge the same day (as detailed in Baillie’s vindication letter, dated 22 August 1648 to his Cousin Robert Baillie pages 455-457).
- Winwick Pass was the definitive battle that caused the capitulation as no other battle ensued after Winwick Pass, only skirmishes and surrendering of various towns throughout England (and Scotland), while the Parliamentarians rounded up the Scottish invaders as traitors and Rebels. All subsequent events at Colchester, Berwick, Carlisle, Appleby, etc and finally Pontefract in 1649, all ended in surrender with no major fighting taking place. (Hansard/Rushworth/Carlyle).
9. The Battle of Winwick Pass: Consequences of the capitulation at Warrington
A consequence of the Battle of Winwick Pass was the change in the role from the Army and the Parliament.
The Houses of Parliament received Cromwell’s correspondence as follows and acted accordingly to the victory over Scotland:
- An Express horse sent by Cromwell on the evening of 19 August 1648 from Warrington arrived London 21 August 1648 at about 3pm (Parliament recorded the express message as received as the last entry of the day). Note: The next day 22 August, Parliament made no resolution to the message
- Cromwell’s letter 20 August 1648 from Warrington arrived at London 23 August 1648. After receiving Cromwell’s letters both Houses of Parliament on receiving, ordered and printed throughout the Kingdom: The victory over the Scots on 17, 18, 19 August 1648 in Lancashire and they ordered a Thanksgiving Day 7 September 1648, (Rushworth, Ormerod, Carlyle).
- Cromwell letters regarding the Warrington Prisoners List and the Army Committee letter 23 August 1648 from Wigan arrived at London on 25 August 1648 by both Houses of Parliament.
- Winwick Pass was the definitive battle that caused the capitulation. This meant that the Scottish Parliament declaration terms published on 8 July 1648 to the English Commission in Edinburgh, made the declaration terms from the Scottish Parliament regarding the condition of the King, the ruling of the country, Religion, the peace of the Country and who is allowed to sit in Parliament, effectively a “null and void” grievance from Scotland. These declaration terms are now the full and total preserve of the English Parliament to settle and govern, (see Heath’s chronicles page 177 and Rushworth page 1196).
- Houses of Parliament received correspondence from Lord General Fairfax containing answers the two questions which were raised at Colchester by the Royalist supporters. First the definition to the Prisoners crying “Mercy, mercy”: what does this entail. Second, the definition and meaning “Quarter for life”. Parliament approved, (Hansard/Rushworth).
- Parliament debated and resolved in agreement with the Liverpool Committee to consider the fate of the Scottish Prisoners taken at Winwick and Warrington. The fate was confirmed by Parliament that the Scottish Prisoners were to be banished from the Kingdom never to return. The fate of the Scottish Prisoners were to be transported to either Virginia/Barbados as slaves for life, or sent to Venice for their Naval fleet as galley slaves (Oars). (Hansard/Rushworth/Beamont/Moore’s Rental).
- Parliament in August/September 1648 passed a resolution for Committees to be set-up around the Kingdom to the Sequestrations of Delinquents of the clergy and others land to pay for the army’s upkeep. (Hansard/Rushworth).
- September/October 1648 Cromwell’s uses Winwick Pass victory in his Declarations/Proclamations to the Scottish Committee at Carlyle and Berwick. Cromwell also uses in the surrender at Berwick the Parliament resolution of 4 August 1648 that those who are against this Kingdom are to be treated as ‘Traitors and Rebels’. To which Berwick surrenders. (Hansard/Rushworth/Carlyle).
- Cromwell informed Parliament, he has invaded the Kingdom of Scotland on search for those Traitors and Rebels, who so invaded the Kingdom of England under the Command of the Duke of Hamilton. The House of Parliament approved the invasion of Scotland by Cromwell and Lambert. (Hansard/Rushworth/Carlyle).
- From Hume Brown page 344:
“….On the 5th of October, Cromwell appeared in Edinburgh, and had a friendly supper with Argyle and Johnston of Warriston at Moray House in the Canongate; and the result of his visit was an agreement between the Anti-Engaging Covenanters and Independents to make common action against all forms of Malignancy….”
10. Parliament re-negotiates with King Charles: August 1648 – 1 January 1649
- From August 1648 the Parliamentary Army were rounding up all the traitors and rebels from the Scottish invasion under the approval of Parliament. It then became clear that in November Parliament could restart negotiations with the King.
- Where the King in November to December 1647 and through to July 1648 refused to accept the three Propositions and the Personal Treaty due to being King of two Kingdoms, then the King had no grievance any more not to accept when the treaties were resubmitted by Parliament to the King in November 1648, (Hansard/Rushworth), due to the Kingdom of Scotland being defeated by the Kingdom of England in the the recent Second Civil War.
- 05 December 1648 the Army under Colonel Pride expels various members of Parliament who were loyal to the King. This is known as “Pride’s Purge” that put an end to the power of the Long Parliament; and the army, swayed solely by the Independents, demanded the trial of the king as the prime cause of all the nation’s misfortunes. (Hansard/Rushworth/Heath and Hume Brown page 344-345).
- Hume Brown ascertains (page 345):
“….Against this action Scotsmen of every type of opinion were united alike in fear and indignation. Monarchy they all regarded as the natural form of government, sanctioned by Heaven and consecrated by immemorial custom. Charles, as every Scot believed, was the 107th in the line of their kings. It was as the representatives of the national feeling, therefore, that Commissioners, despatched by the Estates to London, lodged a vehement protest against the intended act of the Independent leaders. When the Scots had placed Charles in their hands, they had declared that it was on the express condition that he should suffer no harm in his person; and they now added a solemn warning regarding what was likely to ensue on the removal of the king. A time had been when a protest of the Scots might not have been ineffectual with the leaders of the English revolt; but that time was now past. Late events had revealed the impotence of Scotland through its opposing factions; and the chiefs of the Independents were bent on courses which nothing but superior force could arrest…”
- From December 1648 to January 1649 the King stand was, who is to judge ‘His Majesty’ when there is no Peer His Majesty is answerable too. Parliament answered that it is to God, who His Majesty is to answer, as God is His Majesty’s Peer. (Hansard/Rushworth/Heath, page 204 – 205).
11. King Charles I committed for Trial for Treason against The Kingdom of England: January 1649
- 1 January 1649 Parliament resolution about the King.
“…The Houses declare it High Treason in the King to levy War against the Parliament: Resolved, that the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament, do declare and adjudge, That by the Fundamental Laws of this Realm it is Treason in the King of England for the time to come to levy War against the Parliament and Kingdom of England…” (Rushworth page 1380).
- On 4 January 1649, an Act of Parliament of the House of Commons for Trial of Charles Stuart King of England was Passed. (Heath, page 194).
- On 9 January 1649, this Act was followed by a Proclamation in which the King is summoned for trial, because the King continually refused to recognise the charges laid before him, to a point he was judged and sentenced. A warrant for the King’s execution was given on 29 January 1649. (Hansard/Rushworth/Heath, page 217).
- Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, tried to save his father’s life by sending to Parliament, it is said, a blank sheet of paper signed by him, on which Parliament could insert what terms it liked to “save his father’s head”.
The trial of King Charles a contemporary engraving
- The King was executed on 30 January 1649. (Hansard/Rushworth/Heath, page 220).
The execution of King Charles a contemporary German engraving
- After the execution Oliver Cromwell went to see the body of the late King Charles, (Cattermole, page 278).
” …The mournful and tragic scene,” writes Mr. Forster, ” that was enacted on the 30th of January, 1649, in the open street fronting Whitehall, is familiar to every reader of history. Through the whole of that scene Charles bore himself with a dignified composure, and was to the last undisturbed, self-possessed, and serene. He addressed the crowd from the scaffold, forgave all his enemies, protested that the war was not begun by him, declared that the people’s right was only to have their life and goods their own, ‘a share in the government being nothing pertaining to them,’ and concluded with words which, perhaps, expressed a sincere delusion, that he ‘died the martyr of the people.’
When his head fell, severed by the executioner at one blow, ‘ a dismal groan issued from the crowd :’
‘ He nothing common did, or mean,
Upon that memorable scene ;
But with his keener eye
The axe’s edge did try :
Nor called the gods, with vulgar spite,
To vindicate his helpless right;
But bowed his comely head
Down as upon a bed.’
Concerning Cromwell’s share in the transactions of this extraordinary crisis, Mr. Noble, his admirer, but not his blind apologist, thus records his testimony: “His hypocrisy to the public, and jocularity throughout the dreadful tragedy of the king’s trial and execution (though great part of it was forced, and only a cover to hide the perturbation of his mind within), gave greater pain than the action itself. There might be the primary principle of nature, self-defence, to plead in his justification, at least extenuation, in putting the king to death, but none to indulge a vein of mirth and pleasantry in the misfortunes of anyone, particularly a person of so high a degree, and who stood in so sacred a relation to him as his sovereign ; yet, during the last scenes of the king’s life, he talked jestingly, and acted buffoonery; and this, too, when he was professing himself only guided by Providence, and lamenting tlie condition of his sovereign, whose lamentable fate he was fixing. It is certain that he went to feast his eyes upon the murdered king, and some say, put his finger to the neck, to feel whether it was entirely severed ; and viewing the inside of the body, observed how sound it was, and how well made for longevity. Bowtell, a private soldier, said, ‘ that Cromwell could not open the coffin with his staff, but, taking the other’s sword, effected it with the hilt of it :’ while he was inspecting the body, Bowtell asked him what government they should have now ; he said, ‘the same that then was.’ There was no excuse for this ; yet did he before, during the trial and execution, mock his Maker by hypocritical prayers ; and at those times and after, would shed tears for his master’s unhappy situation and death.”
Cromwell lifting the Coffin-lid and looking at the Body of Charles
by Paul Delaroche (17 July 1797 – 4 November 1856)
- Hume Brown apply summarises King Charles I from the view of Scotland. (pages 346 to 348):
“….Since Scotland had embraced the Reformation, it had been her perverse destiny to be ruled in succession by three sovereigns, all of whom were in antagonism to the deepest convictions and aspirations of her people. Of all the rulers of his race, Charles had most hopelessly failed in his kingly office. It may be said that he was wrecked by a theory of that office which made him impossible as a ruler of men. In his own eyes he was simply the vicegerent of Heaven, whose will his subjects could legitimately challenge under no conceivable circumstances. But that in the 17th century he could conceive and act on such a theory in so rigid and fanatical a fashion, is conclusive proof of the essential narrowness of his mind and nature. In other times and in other circumstances he might have found a people who might have taken him at his own estimate and whom he might even have ruled with beneficence. But it was his unhappy fate to rule a people, the majority of whom were convinced that the counsels of Heaven had been committed to themselves. They believed that the Calvinistic creed and the Presbyterian polity were divine in their origin and obligatory alike on individuals and nations. In this opposition of absolute sanctions the ordinary relations of prince and subject were impossible. But it is to be noted that it was the impracticability of Charles that had produced the deadlock. It is certain that, had he been content to leave things as he found them when he came to the throne, the ecclesiastical development of Scotland would have followed a different course. By his policy with regard .to the Liturgy he revived the spirit of Andrew Melville, and drove the majority of the clergy to the conviction that the only safety of the Church lay in the affirmation of the absolute sanction that belonged to their own system of faith and doctrine. When he was worsted in the quarrel he had provoked, his personal character made reconciliation impossible. While ostensibly yielding to the demands of his subjects, he hardly concealed the fact that his concessions would stand only till the first opportunity of recalling them. If he had failed in his government of Scotland and succeeded in England, it might have been said that the Scots had always been a difficult people to govern, as so many of his predecessors had known to their cost. But it is a further grave indictment against Charles that he failed as signally in his government of a people so widely different in their character and history as the English from the Scots. In England the grounds of quarrel were different; but it was by the action of the same qualities—imprudent assertion of his prerogative in his time of power and duplicity in defeat—that he forfeited the allegiance of its people, and moved with fatal steps to the tragic close at Westminster and Whitehall. The constitutional changes of Charles’s reign are so essentially bound up with the national quarrel that they have necessarily made part of the foregoing narrative. The revival of the influence of the General Assemblies is the most notable fact of the period. From 1639 onwards this influence was so great that Parliament found its strength only in deferring to their expressed wishes. The casting out of the bishops, the revival of the ancient method of electing the Lords of the Articles, and the triennial Parliaments, were the constitutional changes by which the revolutionary party sought to undo the work of Charles and his father. In the opening years of his reign Charles had shown that, when the question of his prerogative was not at stake, he was seriously interested in the well-being of his northern kingdom. In 1628 he revived the Commission for the Middle Shires, which, originally created by his father, had been in abeyance since Charles’s own accession. The same year saw his revival of an institution with wider action for good. This was the system of Justice- Ayres, which he was the first to place upon a solid and effective basis. By the arrangement which he made there were to be eight itinerary justices—two for each quarter of the kingdom; and the month of October was fixed for the annual circuit’. These same opening years in Scotland raised another question regarding the possible development of Charles’s reign. By the year 1628 the country was virtually in a state of bankruptcy. In February of that year his Privy Council wrote to him that the exchequer was empty and that public business had come to a deadlock. In 1625 a grant had been made of the twentieth penny of all annual rents ; but so great had been the opposition to the tax that it had been found impossible to raise it in anything like full measure. A few more burdens of this kind, and Charles would have had to face in Scotland the same difficulties that led to his breach with the Parliament of England. But in Scotland the controversy was to rest on other grounds. Before his financial straits could produce what appeared to be an inevitable crisis, the ecclesiastical question arose and absorbed the public mind to the exclusion of every other….”
12. The Rise of Parliament: 30 January 1649 – February 1648 and beyond.
- On 30 January 1649 Parliament Proclaimed
“…The Committee to whom the enfuing Proclamation was referred made report hereof, and the Houfe affented to the fame: Here take it at large.
WHereas Charles Stuart King of England, being for the notorious Treafons, Tyrannies and Murders committed by him in the late unnatural and cruel Wars, condemned to death ; whereupon after execution of the fame, feveral Pretences may be made, and Titles fet on foot unto the Kingly Office, to the apparent hazard of the publick Peace : For prevention whereof, Be it enacted and ordained by this prefent Parliament, and by Authority of the fame. That no Perfon or Perfons whatfoever do prefume to proclaim, declare, publifh, or any way promote Charles Stuart, Son of the faid Charles, commonly called the Prince of Wales,or any other Perfon, to be King or Chief Magiftrate of England, or of Ireland, or of any the Dominions belonging to them, or either of them, by colour of Inheritance, Succeffion, Election, or any other Claim whatfoever, without the free Confent of the People in Parliament firft had and fignified by a particular Act or Ordinance for that purpofe ; any Statute, Law, Ufage, or Cuftom to the contrary hereof in anywife notwithftanding.
” And be it further enacted and ordained, and it is hereby enacted and ordained, That whofoever fhall contrary to this Act proclaim, declare, publifh, or any way promote the faid Charles Stuart the Son, or any other Perfon, to be King, or Chief Magiftrate of England, or of Ireland; or of any the Dominions belonging to them, or to either of them, without the faid confent in Parliament fignified as aforefaid, fhall be deemed and adjudged a Traitor to the Commonwealth, and fhall fuffer the pains of Death, and fuch other Punifhments as belong to the Crimes of High Treafon. And all Officers as well Civil as Military, and all other well-affected Perfons are hereby authorifed and required forthwith to apprehend all fuch Offenders, and to bring them in fafe Cuftody to the next Juftice of the Peace, that they may be proceeded againft accordingly…”
This Proclamation is known as the ‘Tidy Act’.
(Hansard/Rushworth, page 1431/Heath, page 225).
[Note: The ‘Tidy Act’ 30 January 1649 was the base Act for the Houses of Parliament approving who would be the King or Queen of England. Whereupon, after the death of Oliver Cromwell (1658), and the eventual restoration of King Charles II (1660-1685), who was easy going, and in religion he was the most tolerant man of his court. The Elizabethan Prayer Book was revised in a High Church direction and all services had to be in accordance with this Prayer Book (Act of Uniformity, 1662), and the bishops were restored to the Church of England. When Charles II died having failed to have an issue as a successor, his brother James II reigned. King James II (1685-1688) was a strong Roman Catholic, and anxious to make England a Roman Catholic country, he was also a strong believer in the absolute rule of Kings, and wanted to have as much power in England as his forebears. James II, first wife, Anne died, leaving two daughters, Mary and Anne, both raised in the Protestant faith. Then James II married Mary of Modena, a Roman Catholic, where they had a son, James Edward (known later as the Old Pretender), people knew that he would be brought up as a Catholic. The nation then began to think that they must find another King. But who was to be King instead of James?
Certain leaders in England asked James II daughter Mary, married to William of Orange of Holland, to come over to England in order to restore national liberty and save the Protestant religion. As it happened William (and Mary) were quite willing to come and turn his father-in-law off the throne of England. William landed in Torbay and came to London meeting no resistance, for King James II had become very unpopular in England, who fled to France. In doing so, James II dropped the Great Seal into the Thames on the way. All the important State documents have to be sealed with the Great Seal before they can become legal. So Lawyers afterwards said that James' reign came to an end at the moment when the Great Seal was thrown away to settle in the mud of the Thames at Vauxhall. Shortly afterwards William and Mary became King William III (1688-1702) and Queen Mary II (1688-1694). During their joint reign, James II tried several attempt to regain the throne but eventually abandoned his cause and recognised William III as King of England in 1697.
One great result for Parliament following the Succession of King William III. Henceforth, the King of England, in carrying on the government of the country, had to depend on annual money grants from Parliament. This meant that Parliament had to meet every year, and no king could henceforth imitate King Charles I and rule for long years without Parliament. As it voted the money, Parliament gradually got more and more power. The Monarch's annual money occurs today.
Upon the death of William III in 1702, Queen Mary II younger sister Anne, became Queen Anne (1702-1714), again Protestant. But before the end of William III reign, the Question, “Who was to be our next Sovereign after Anne?” By the Act of Succession (1701) passed at the end of William II reign, the throne was to go to the next Protestant heir. Parliament found via the hereditary tree, a descendant of King James I of England via his daughter, Elizabeth, her grandson, George of Hanover, who was of the Protestant faith.
During the reign of Queen Anne, the Act of Union of the Parliaments of Scotland and England (1707) was passed. Of course the two countries had for a long time had the same monarch (since 1603); but henceforth they were to have the same Parliament to meet in London from 1707.
When Queen Anne died in 1714, thus ending the House of Stuart, George of Hanover became King George I (1714-1727), whose successors lead us to the situation we have today of a Protestant Monarch on the throne of England.]
- The Government declared and voted on several issues (Heath’s Chronicles page 226 – 227):
- Exclusion from future Parliament sittings of those who were removed in ‘Prides Purge’ 5 December 1648;
- 5 February 1649, Vote: To order an Act to be drawn, House of Lords to be abolished;
- 7 February 1649 Parliament abolished ‘Kingly Government’; and
- 8 February 1649, Declaration and Protestation against the Nobility.
- Council of State (Heath page 226)
“…Now that they were thus possest of the whole entire Power and Authority, for the better exercise thereof, and the speedier fruition of the sweets thereof, they agree to part and divided the Province, the Government among them. To this end, the concluded to elect an Athenian Tyranny of some 40 of them, under the Name and Title of a Council of State, to whom the Executive part of their Power should be committed, while the Parliament (as they called their Worship) should exercise only the Judicatory part thereof; and so between them make quick work of their business, in confounding and running the Kingdom.
And that they might likewise appear to the people as great preservers of the Laws, and to study their weal in the due administration of Justice…”
13. Further Work: Investigation in to the Regiments and Troops present at Winwick Pass
Research is currently under investigation into the precise numbers of the Scottish Royalist Forces and the Parliamentary Forces that were involved at Winwick Pass and Warrington and will be included soon.
14. Overall Conclusion
The decisive battle of Winwick Pass caused the capitulation of the Scottish Royalist at Warrington Bridge, resulting in “The Fall of Monarchy and the Rise of Parliament”.
The decisive battle of Winwick Pass caused Parliament to restart negotiations with King Charles I in order to relinquish powers to Parliament to run the Kingdoms. His majesty made his decision not to comply, resulting in his execution as a traitor to the Kingdom of England. This allowed Parliament to initiate the running of the Kingdoms through various Acts of Parliament from 1649 to 1660 under the Commonwealth. This power to which Parliament gained during this period laid the seed for when the Kingdom of England returned to be led by the monarch King Charles II, Parliament control was set that no return to the days of King Charles I was possible.
Between the years1660 to 1800 successive Acts of Parliament were made between the consecutive monarchs and Acts of Union between England and Scotland. From 1800 the start was made to devolve certain duties to the counties of England and Wales from the reforming “Rotten Boroughs”. Newton-le-Willows were known as a rotten borough and was represented by two Members of Parliament in the House of Commons of the Parliament of England from 1559 to 1706. Newton-le-Willows was also represented in the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 until its abolition in 1832. In 1885 a county constituency with the same name was created and represented by one Member of Parliament. This seat was abolished in 1983.
The devolution was continued as shown in the Reform Act 1832; the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 and 1882, and the Local Government Act 1888, 1933 and 1972. The Local Government Acts created Borough Councils to run the various areas of England and Wales. Certain aspects over these intervening years have been given to councils: Planning and Historical significance are just two of them. Two local Borough Councils are St Helens Borough Council and Warrington Borough Council.
So the Battle of Winwick Pass 1648 reduced the power of the King and increased the power of Parliament. By the enactment of various laws Parliament allowed the councils to be created to the point of where they are today.
Finally, this document is also created to commemorate all the unrecognised Scottish Royalist and English Parliamentarians, who due to their respective beliefs lost their lives at Winwick Pass, 19 August 1648.
15. Battle of Winwick Pass 19 August 1648 Tours
Richard along with Our Local Voice members and occassionally the Battlefield Trust members undertake battlefield tours the general public are very welcome to attend. We are particularly keen to educate the younger generation in our local history.
Winwick Pass today is the only relatively undisturbed battlefield site of the Second Civil War and is currently in the process of registration with English Heritage, so that this nationally important historic event is preserved for this and future generations to enjoy.
Donations can be made by contacting ‘The Battlefields Trust’ at: Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
Web site: www.battlefieldstrust.com
- The Royalist Lieutenant General Baillie has several different spellings depending which reference is read. A few differences are Bayley, Bailly, Balley.
- The Royalist The Earl of Calander has different spellings depending which reference is read. A few differences are Callender, Callander.
- The Parliamentarian Colonel Thornly has different spellings depending which reference is read. A few differences are Thornhaugh, Thornhill.
Literary works referenced in ‘The Fall of Monarchy and the Rise of Parliament’.
1) “From Then Till Now” by C. H. K Marten, (Lower Master at Eton College) and E.H.Carter (late Scholar of Jesus College Cambridge): Oxford Basil Blackwell. First printed 1928 reprinted 1929 printed by Billing and Sons Ltd Guilford and Esher.
2) Life and Work of the People of England by Dorothy Hartley and Margaret M. Elliot, Volume II The Renaissance A.D. 1500 – 1800, Published by B.T. Barsford Ltd, 94 High Holborn, London.
3) Sanderson’s Diary and Letters, two sources of the Diary:
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES in NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE. THIRD SERIES. VOL. IX. (JANUARY, 1919, TO DECEMBER, 1920)
EDITED BY ROBERT BLAIR. PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY TITUS WILSON & SON, HIGHGATE, KENDAL 1921 by R. Blair (editor), pages 13-24.
ii) Diary and Letters
Major Sanderson’s War Diary of a Parliamentary Cavalry Officer by P.R.Hill and J.M.Watkinson published in 2008 by Spellmount Publishers, The History Press Ltd, The Mill, Brimscombe Port, Strud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2QG www.thehistorypress.co.uk. (ISBN 978 1 86227 468 6)
4) Heath’s Chronicle.
A Chronicle of the Late Intestine War in the three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland with The Intervening Affairs of Treaties. In Four Parts: The Common War, The Democracie, The Protectorate, The Restitution by James Heath Gentleman. The second edition. To which is added A Continuation to this present year 1675 By J. Phillips. London MDCLXXVI (1676). Winwick Pass See page 178
“A Brief Chronicle of the Late Intestine War in the Three Kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland: With the Intervening Affairs of Treaties, and Other Occurrences Relating Thereunto. As Also the Several Usurpations, Foreign Wars, Differences and Interests Depending Upon It, to the Happy …” in Four Parts by James Heath, publisher J.B., 1663 (London : Printed by J. Best for William Lee, 1663); where Winwick Pass is detailed on page 323 source British Libraries.
5) Hamilton’s Memoirs
THE MEMOIRS OF THE LIVES AND ACTIONS OF JAMES AND WILLIAM
DUKES OF HAMILTON AND CASTLE-HERALD. BY GILBERT BURNET, LATE LORD BISHOP OF SALISBURY. (To the King, 21st of October, 1673. GILBERT BURNET.)
OXFORD: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS M.DCCC.LII. (1852)
6) Turner’s Memoirs
Memoirs OF HIS OWN LIFE AND TIMES BY SIR JAMES TURNER.
M.DC.XXXII. M.DC.LXX. (1632-1670) FROM THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT. PRINTED AT EDINBURGH M.DCCC.XXIX. (1829)
AT A MEETING of the COMMITTEE of MANAGEMENT of the BANNATYNE CLUB, held at Edinburgh, on the 11th day of June, 1828.
IT having been stated to the Meeting by the Vice-President, that ” THE MEMOIRS OF SIR JAMES TURNER,” from an original Manuscript in the possession of David Constable, Esq. Advocate, were in preparation for the press, it was RESOLVED, That One Hundred Copies of the Work should be purchased for the use of the Club.
DAVID LAING, Secretary. Turner died in 1670
7) Hodgson’s Memoirs
Original Memoirs, Written during the Great Civil War being the life of Sir Henry Slingby, and the Memoirs of Capt. Hodgson. With Notes. Edinburgh 1806.
Memoirs of Captain John Hodgson of Coalley-Hall, Near Halifax; vouching his conduct in the Civil Wars and his troubles after the Restoration; Written by himself and now first published from his manuscript Written 1642 to 1683.
Historical Collections The Fourth and Last Part. Volume the Second.
CONTAINING THE PRINCIPAL MATTERS
Which Happened From the Beginning of the Year 1645 to the Death of King Charles the First: 1648.
Wherein is a Particular Account of the Progress of the CIVIL WAR to that Period,
IMPARTIALLY RELATED, By John Rushworth, late of Lincolns-Inn, Esq;
Fitted for the Press in his Lifetime. LONDON, MDCCI (1701).
9) Hansards of the House of Commons and House of Lords from the British History Online website: website pages scroll through the calendar records.
House of Lords Journal Volume 10 24 August 1648
Proceedings in Parliament: August 1st – September 1st 1648
Author John Rushworth Year published 1721 Pages 1212-1248
THE LETTERS AND SPEECHES OF OLIVER CROMWELL WITH ELUCIDATIONS
BY THOMAS CARLYLE EDITED IN THREE VOLUMES WITH NOTES, SUPPLEMENT AND ENLARGED INDEX BY S. C. LOMAS WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY C. H. FIRTH, M.A.
METHUEN & CO. 36 ESSEX STREET W.C. LONDON 1904
Volumes 1, 2 & 3 Third Edition
11) THE GREAT CIYIL WAR OF THE TIMES OF CHARLES I. AND CROMWELL BY THE REV. RICHARD CATTERMOLE, B.D. WITH Thirty Highly-Finished Engravings by GEORGE CATTERMOLE, ESQ.
LONDON: HENRY G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 1852.
12) Ormerod (Cromwell’s Letters and Langdale’s Letter) taken from:
TRACTS RELATING TO MILITARY PROCEEDINGS LANCASHIRE DURING THE GREAT CIVIL WAR, COMMENCING WITH THE REMOVAL, BY PARLIAMENT, OF JAMES LORD STRANGE, AFTERWARDS EARL OF DERBY, FROM HIS LIEUTENANCY OF LANCASHIRE, AND TERMINATING WITH HIS EXECUTION AT BOLTON. EDITED AND ILLUSTRATED FROM CONTEMPORARY DOCUMENTS, BY GEORGE ORMEROD, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. OP TYLDESLEY AND SEDBURY, AUTHOR OF THE HISTORY OF CHESHIRE. PRINTED FOR THE CHETHAM SOCIETY. M.DCCC.XLIV. (1844)
13) The Moore Rental edited by Thomas Heywood Esq F.S.A. Printed by The Chetham Society MDCCCXLVII (1847). page xxxvii-xxxviii Scots Slaves.
14) A Discourse of the Warr in Lancashire edited by William Beamont Esq. Printed by The Chetham Society MDCCCXLXIV (1864) Pages 66, 145 &146 (Scottish Slaves – Moore, Winwick Church Register, Locals show the way round, Little green place – Winwick Green)
15) Winwick Church Parish Register- Burial Records for 3 September 1648 is one, “Majar John Chumley shouldiar”, a copy of this book is at Warrington Museum
16) Local Gleanings relating to Lancashire and Cheshire edited by J.P. Earwaker, M.A., F.S.A Volume 1 April 1875 – December 1875 (Dr. Kuerden’s Post Road Travels Warrington to Wigan; Lesser Road Travels Winwick to Wigan 1695 page 208-214)
17) Winwick and Hume Tithe Map 1838 at Warrington Museum,
18) British History Online www.british-history.ac.uk
Ordinance survey 1849 maps of the Winwick and Newton areas
19) National Museum & Galleries on Merseyside Occasional Papers Liverpool Museum No. 3 Historic Towns of the Merseyside area: a survey of urban settlement to c. 1800 by Robert A. Philpott 1988
20) THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF THE COUNTY OF LANCASTER EDITED BY WILLIAM FARRER, D.Lrrr., AND J. BROWNBILL, M.A. VOLUME FOUR LONDON CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LIMITED 1911 (Page 134 The Manor of Hey).
21) BCW Project: British Civil Wars, Commonwealth & Protectorate 1638 – 1660
22) THE HAMILTON PAPERS: BEING SELECTIONS FROM ORIGINAL LETTERS
IN THE POSSESSION OF HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF HAMILTON AND BRANDON, RELATING TO THE YEARS 1638—1650. EDITED BY SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER. PRINTED FOR THE CAMDEN SOCIETY. M.DCCC.LXXX. (1880)
23) A Declaration of the Commons of England In Parliament assembled; expressing Their reasons and Grounds of passing the late Resolutions touching No further Address to be made to the King. Die Veneris, 11 February 1647 (1648). Ordered by the Commons assembled in Parliament,that this Declaration be forthwith printed and Published H: Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D.Com. Feb.15.1647 (1648) (All Pages)
24) The copies of all Letters, Papers and other Transactions between the Commissioners of the Parliament of England and the Parliament and Committee of Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland, from February 10.1647 until July 8 1648. Printed for Edward Husband, Printer to the Honourable House of Commons August 14 1648. (see all pages)
Note: February 10. 1647. until July 8. 1648.
This must be read due to the Julian/Gregorian calender difference as:
February 10, 1648. until July 8. 1648.
To translate and understand the dates correctly in today’s terms.
25) The Diary of Captain Samuel Birch 16 May 1648 to 29 March 1649 found in Historical Manuscripts Commission Fourteenth Report, Appendix, Part II. The Manuscripts of his Grace The Duke of Portland preserved at Welbeck Abbey Vol III (1894) pages 173 – 186.
26) HISTORY OF SCOTLAND in three volumes
VOL.1 TO THE ACCESSION OF MARY STEWART
VOL.2 FROM THE ACCESSION OF MARY STEWART TO THE REVOLUTION OF 1689
VOL.3 FROM THE REVOLUTION OF 1689 TO THE DISRUPTION, 1843
BY P. HUME BROWN, M.A., LL.D., FRASER PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT (SCOTTISH) HISTORY AND PALEOGRAPHY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH.
CAMBRIDGE: AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 1902
See Volume 2 pages 339 to 348 gives a perspective to the Scottish view to the events from 1646 to 1649.
Volume 1 gives an explains the early role Scotland played on the Union of England and Scotland.
Volumes 2 and 3 explains the events of Scotland’s role on the Union of England and Scotland after 1660.
27) Baillies Vindication Letter pages 455-457 (See 524 of 665) Appendix No II: The Letters and Journals of Robert Baillie, A.M. Principle of the University of Glasgow MDCXXXVII-MDCLXIL in Three Volumes. Volume Third Edinburgh: MDCCCXLII.
28) House of Lords Journal Volume 10 25 August 1648 Sponsor History of Parliament Trust Publication Journal of the House of Lords: volume 10: 1648 – 1649 Year published 1767-1830 Pages 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460
Contains the List of Scottish Prisoners taken at Warrington 19 August 1648 and Scotish Prisoners taken in Cheshire 20-22 August 1648.
29) “Miniture Wargames Magazine March 2001 Issue 214″ Pages 11 to 15, article “Last Stand of the Blue Bonnets; The Battle of Winwick Pass, 19 August 1648″ by John Barratt.
Also the “CD ROM Back Issues for Miniture Wargames Magazine – Issues 201-225”. Available from Caliver Books, 100 Baker Road, Newthorpe, NG16 2DP Website: www.caliverbooks.com or contact email@example.com
Tel: (+44) (0) 1159 382111
30) “English Civil War Notes and Queries” Issue 13, article “Winwick Pass” by Gary Ashby. Available from Caliver Books, 100 Baker Road, Newthorpe, NG16 2DP Website: www.caliverbooks.com or contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (+44) (0) 1159 382111
31) “Forlorn Hope” by Peter Berry and Ben Wilkins. Available from Caliver Books, 100 Baker Road, Newthorpe, NG16 2DP Website: www.caliverbooks.com or contact email@example.com Tel: (+44) (0) 1159 382111
32) “Bloody Preston” by Steven Bull and Mike Seed 1998.
33) “Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies 1639-1651” by Edward Furgol 1990. Available from Caliver Books, 100 Baker Road, Newthorpe, NG16 2DP Website: www.caliverbooks.com or contact firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: (+44) (0) 1159 382111
34) “Scots Armies of the C17th Part II: Scots Regiments and Colours 1647-1651” by Stuart Reid 1990. Available from Caliver Books, 100 Baker Road, Newthorpe, NG16 2DP Website: www.caliverbooks.com or contact email@example.com Tel: (+44) (0) 1159 382111
1 . Puritan definition : members of the party of English protestant who regarded reformation of the Church under Elizabeth as incomplete and sought to abolish unscriptural and corrupt ceremonies.
2 . Lord-General Fairfax was the Commander of the Parliamentary forces.
3 . The Manor of Hey is described in THE VICTORIA HISTORY OF THE COUNTY OF LANCASTER EDITED BY WILLIAM FARRER, D.Lrrr., AND J. BROWNBILL, M.A. VOLUME FOUR LONDON CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LIMITED 1911 Page 134
4 . Winwick Church Parish Register- Burial Records for 3 September 1648 is one, “Majar John Chumley shouldiar”
5 . Note some of the words use the ‘f’ which should be read as ‘s’.